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  • http://www.Dummies.com http://www.Dummies.com http://www.Dummies.com http://www.dummies.com/cheatsheet/englishgrammaruk

  • English Grammar FOR

    DUMmIES ‰

    by Lesley J. Ward and Geraldine Woods

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  • English Grammar For Dummies®

    Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd The Atrium Southern Gate Chichester West Sussex PO19 8SQ England

    E-mail (for orders and customer service enquires): cs-books@wiley.co.uk

    Visit our Home Page on www.wiley.com

    Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex, England

    Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, West Sussex

    All Rights Reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or trans- mitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or other- wise, except under the terms of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, W1T 4LP, UK, without the permission in writing of the Publisher. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, England, or emailed to permreq@wiley.co.uk, or faxed to (44) 1243 770620.

    Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, For Dummies, the Dummies Man logo, A Reference for the Rest of Us!, The Dummies Way, Dummies Daily, The Fun and Easy Way, Dummies.com and related trade dress are trademarks or registered trademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates in the United States and other countries, and may not be used without written permission. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.

    LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER, THE AUTHOR, AND ANYONE ELSE INVOLVED IN PREPARING THIS WORK MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETENESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS WORK AND SPECIFICALLY DIS- CLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A PAR- TICULAR PURPOSE. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES OR PROMOTIONAL MATERIALS. THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY SITUATION. THIS WORK IS SOLD WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT THE PUBLISHER IS NOT ENGAGED IN RENDERING LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, OR OTHER PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. IF PROFES- SIONAL ASSISTANCE IS REQUIRED, THE SERVICES OF A COMPETENT PROFESSIONAL PERSON SHOULD BE SOUGHT. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR THE AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES ARISING HEREFROM. THE FACT THAT AN ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE IS REFERRED TO IN THIS WORK AS A CITATION AND/OR A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF FURTHER INFORMATION DOES NOT MEAN THAT THE AUTHOR OR THE PUBLISHER ENDORSES THE INFORMATION THE ORGANIZATION OR WEBSITE MAY PROVIDE OR RECOMMENDATIONS IT MAY MAKE. FURTHER, READERS SHOULD BE AWARE THAT INTERNET WEBSITES LISTED IN THIS WORK MAY HAVE CHANGED OR DISAPPEARED BETWEEN WHEN THIS WORK WAS WRITTEN AND WHEN IT IS READ.

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    British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data: A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN: 978-0-470-05752-0

    Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bell & Bain Ltd. Glasgow

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  • About the Authors Lesley J. Ward has worked in the publishing industry for over thirty years, editing and proofreading books and journals. She is a founder member of the Society for Editors and Proofreaders (SfEP), and regularly leads training courses for SfEP, the Irish Book Publishers’ Association and The London College of Communication. She is also a distance-learning tutor for the Publishing Training Centre. Her favourite course is Brush up your grammar. She lives in Berkshire and is notorious for being a harmless eccentric/ dangerous radical who refuses to have e-mail. She doesn’t have a cat.

    Geraldine Woods’ career as a grammarian began in her elementary school, which in those days was called ‘grammar school’ for very good reason. With the guidance of a series of nuns carrying long rulers (good for pointing at the board and slapping unruly students), she learned how to diagram every con- ceivable type of sentence. She has been an English teacher for 25 years and has written 40 books, give or take a few. She loves minor-league baseball, Chinese food, and the novels of Jane Austen.

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  • Dedication From Lesley: This book is dedicated to Oliver and Francesca, who are going to receive copies from their grammatically obsessed maiden aunt.

    From Geraldine: For my husband and son, the hearts of my life.

    Authors’ Acknowledgements From Lesley: Most of the people I need to thank will have to remain nameless because I can’t remember their names. The primary school teacher who got me hooked on grammar in the first place isn’t even a nameless face to me any more, although I can still see the blackboard and remember the weather (rainy) on the day she showed me that language is fascinating. My teachers at grammar school also did a wonderful job. (A special thank-you here to all the members of successive governments who didn’t decide that I didn’t need to know grammar.) Every author who argued with me, and every publishing house that gave me feedback on the work I did for them, helped to hone my skills. And all the experts who have taken the trouble to write grammar books that I could understand. Bless them – I now have a much better idea of how much effort those books took.

    Also, thank you to Alison Yates and Simon Bell at Wiley. They were incredibly patient when I missed deadlines. And to Tabby Toussaint, the technical reviewer who saved me from a gaffe or two, and the poor frustrated copy- editor. They tried. Anything that’s still wrong is my fault.

    From Geraldine: I offer thanks to my students, whose intelligence and curios- ity never fail to inspire me. I also thank technical editor Tom LaFarge, whose good sense of humour and knowledge of grammar vastly improved this book. I am grateful to my project editor, Linda Brandon, whose thoughtful com- ments challenged me to clarify my explanations and whose encouragement changed many a bad day into a good one. I appreciate the hard work of copy editors Billie Williams and Ellen Considine, who constantly reminded me to focus on you, the reader. I am also grateful to acquisitions editors Joyce Pepple, Roxane Cerda, and Susan Decker, who encouraged me at every opportunity. I owe a debt of gratitude to my agent, Carolyn Krupp, who calmed my nerves and answered my e-mails with unfailing courtesy and valuable assistance. Lastly, I thank my colleagues in the English Department, whose passion for teaching and love of our subject make my time at work a pleasure.

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  • Publisher’s Acknowledgements We’re proud of this book; please send us your comments through our Dummies online registration form located at www.dummies.com/register/.

    Some of the people who helped bring this book to market include the following:

    Acquisitions, Editorial, and Media Development

    Project Editor: Simon Bell

    Content Editor: Steve Edwards

    Commissioning Editor: Alison Yates

    Copy Editor: Charlie Wilson

    Technical Editor: Tabby Toussaint

    Executive Editor: Jason Dunne

    Executive Project Editor: Martin Tribe

    Cover Photo: GettyImages/John Molloy

    Cartoons: Ed McLachlan

    Composition Services

    Project Coordinator: Jennifer Theriot

    Layout and Graphics: Carl Byers, Joyce Haughey, Stephanie D. Jumper, Laura Pence, Erin Zeltner

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    Brand Reviewer: Janet Sims

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    Kelly Regan, Editorial Director, Travel

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    Debbie Stailey, Director of Composition Services

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  • Contents at a Glance Introduction .................................................................1

    Part I: The Parts of Speech and Parts of the Sentence......7 Chapter 1: I Already Know How to Talk. Why Should I Study Grammar? ..........