DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH ... ??DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH AND QUARRY SAND A. R. Narde Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of

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  • http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 587 editor@iaeme.com

    International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

    Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2018, pp. 587595, Article ID: IJCIET_09_02_057

    Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=2

    ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

    IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

    DURABILITY STUDIES ON CONCRETE WITH

    FLY ASH, RICE HUSK ASH AND QUARRY

    SAND

    A. R. Narde

    Research Scholar, Civil Engineering Department,

    Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering College, Nagpur, India

    Dr A. R. Gajbhiye

    Professor, Civil Engineering Department,

    Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering College, Nagpur, India

    ABSTRACT

    The durability of concrete is defined as its ability to with stand weathering action,

    chemical action, chemical attack or any progressive deterioration. A durable concrete

    requires little or no maintenance and retains its original form, quality and

    serviceability when exposed to its environmental expect harsh or aggressive

    environments.

    In this research the attempt have been made to examine the suitability of replacing

    cement by rice husk ash and fly ash and natural sand by with various percentage of

    quarry sand for M25 grade concrete and examine characteristic such as compressive

    strength and critical mix was determined and compared with the conventional

    concrete(controlled mix)and durability characteristic such as acid attack test for 30

    days 60days, 90 days ,120days were analyzed also effect of carbonation was studied

    and micro structural analysis was carried by XRF Analysis. The controlled mix with

    100% Natural sand and 100% cement and critical mixes with 22.5% fly ash, 7.5 %

    Rice husk ash and 30% quarry sand with replacement cement and natural sand

    respectively and mix was examined for durability. The use rice husk ash and fly ash in

    concrete has been found to improve the resistance of concrete sulphuric acid and

    hydrochloric acid attack because of reduced presence of calcium hydroxide which is

    more vulnerable to acid attack. The use of fly ash and rice husk ash as partial

    replacement of ordinary Portland cement was found to more effective in reduction of

    acid attack. And it has been observed that carbonation not effect of compressive

    strength of concrete.

    Keywords: Quarry sand(QS), fly ash (FA), Natural sand (NS), rice husk ash (RHA),

    Coarse aggregate (CA). XRF analysis

  • A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 588 editor@iaeme.com

    Cite this Article: A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye, Durability Studies on Concrete

    with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand, International Journal of Civil

    Engineering and Technology, 9(2), 2018, pp. 587595.

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=9&IType=2

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in civil Engineering industry because

    of its high structural strength, stability The controlled concrete is produced by using Natural

    sand from river bed as fine aggregate. Dwindling sand resources poses the environmental

    problem and hence government restriction on sand quarrying resulted in scarcity and

    significant increase in it cost and The concrete industry is constantly looking for

    supplementary cementations material with the objective of reducing the solid waste disposal

    problem of Fly Ash and Rice husk ash and cost savings can result when industrial by-products

    are used as partial replacements for the energy - intensive Portland cement. Thus an

    increasing demand for cement and concrete can be met by partially replacing cement with Fly

    ash and Rice husk ash and natural sand with Quarry sand. This investigation was carried to

    study the feasibility of using locally available rice husk ash, Fly ash and Quarry sand as

    partial replacements for cement and sand in concrete.

    In present investigation cement was replaced by rice husk ash and Fly ash by weight of

    the cement as ingredient in concrete and Quarry sand was used as an alternative fine

    aggregate material to it which is obtained during quarrying process. This paper describes the

    effects of atmosphere on the concrete mixes.

    2. MATERIALS

    2.1. Coarse Aggregate

    The specific gravity and water absorption are 2.67 and 0.8% respectively. The tests were

    conducted as per IS: 383 1970.

    2.2. Cement

    Ordinary Portland cement of 43-grade was used in this study conforming to IS: 12269-1987.

    The physical properties are: Specific gravity is 3.15gm/cc Normal consistency is 28.3%

    2.3. Rice husk ash

    RHA was obtained from YASH AGRO, Chimur, Chandrapur. Sieving was carried out by

    passing it through 90 micron sieve and then it is use for research purpose. RHA was

    considered in the present study as a replacement of cement. The specific gravity of RHA used

    is 2.1gm/cc

    2.4. Fly ash

    Fly ash used was obtained from Koradi Power Plant Nagpur. The fly ash, also known as

    pulverized fuel ash, It is produced from burning pulverized coal in electric power generating

    plants. Specific gravity of fly ash is 2.29gm/cc.

    2.5. Quarry sand

    Quarry Sand was obtained from Sidheshwar quarry, Pachgaon. Plant: 360, Surgaon, Nagpur.

    The cheapest and the easiest way of getting substitute for natural sand is by crushing natural

    stone to get artificial sand of desired size and grade which would be free from all impurities is

    known as Quarry Sand. Specific gravity of quarry sand is 3.09gm/cc.

  • Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 589 editor@iaeme.com

    2.6. Chemical admixture

    In this project, super-plasticizer is used as high range water reducer.AC-PLAST-BV

    430.Apple Chemie India Private Limited Company, Nagpur as a high range water reducing

    admixture for obtaining a workability

    3. MIX DESIGN

    The concrete mix M25 were designed in accordance with IS 10262-2009. The Three mixes of

    three different grades of M25 have been selected for the investigation of durability tests like

    acid attack, carbonation, permeability. It is indicated in Table 1.

    Table 1 Durability Test on Selected Samples of Concrete

    Mix Cement

    %

    Fly ash

    %

    Rice

    husk ash

    %

    Natural

    Sand %

    Quarry

    sand %

    Coarse

    aggregate

    %

    Mix 1(controlled mix)

    M25-A 100 00 00 100 00 100

    Mix 2

    M25-A4 100 22.5 7.5 100 00 100

    Mix3(critical mix)

    M25-B6 70 22.5 7.5 70 30 100

    4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION

    4.1. Testing

    Tests on hardened concrete carried out includes compressive test on concrete cube for size

    150mm X 150mm X 150mm (IS: 5161959). Acid resistance test for hydrochloric acid (HCl)

    and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) were carried out as per ACTM C-267 and Rapid chloride

    permeability test in accordance with ASTM C1202. The chemical composition of cement

    concrete is determined using XRF analysis, before and after immersion in acidic water

    solution.

    4.2. Acid attack testing of concrete

    The initial mass and compressive strength of the cubic specimens of 150x150x150 mm was

    determined after 28 days of curing before immersing into the acid solutions. Sulphuric and

    hydrochloric acid solutions with initial concentrations of 2% by volume were prepared in

    acid-resistant tanks. The 2% H2SO4 water solution (98.5% concentration-11.2 ml/liter water)

    and 2% HCl water solution (36.46% concentration-48.8 ml/liter water) were prepared. The

    Replicates of specimens from each mixture were kept continuously immersed in the sulphuric

    and hydrochloric acid solutions for 30, 60, 90 & 120 days as recommended by ASTM C 267.

    During the test period, the cubic specimens were removed after 30, 60, 90 & 120 days from

    solutions, rinsed with tap water and left to dry for 30 min before weighing and visual

    inspection. The solution was replaced at regular intervals to maintain pH 6 constant

    throughout. After 30, 60, 90 & 120 days, the specimens were tested for compressive strength

    based on the original cross-sectional area. The percentage of strength change were calculated,

    percentage weight loss were calculated.

  • A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 590 editor@iaeme.com

    4.3. Chemical analysis of acid affected concrete

    The chemical composition of an inorganic material was determined by XRay Fluorescence

    Analysis (XRF). It provides highly accurate information about elemental mineral composition

    4.4. Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability Test

    The rapid chloride ion permeability test (RCPT) is performed as per provisions of ASTM

    C1202. This standard specifies the rating of chloride permeability of concrete based on the

    charge passed through the specimen during six hours of testing period. RCPT has been used

    to evaluate the chloride permeability of hardened cement concretes. The Rapid chloride

    permeability test (RCPT) is performed by monitoring the amount of electrical current that

    passes through a sample 50 mm thick by 100 mm in diameter in 6 hours this sample is

    typically cut as a slice of a core or cylinder. A voltage of 60V DC is maintained across the

    ends of the sample throughout the test. One lead is immersed in a 3.0% salt (NaCl) solution

    and the other in a 0.3 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Based on the charge that passes

    through the sample, a qualitative rating is made of the concretes permeability. RCPT has

    been used to evaluate the chloride permeability of hardened concrete. It is indicated in

    figure 1

    Figure 1 Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) Testing

    4.5. Carbonation of concrete

    The carbonation chamber apparatus consists of a chamber as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

    The chamber is the environmental supply chamber where air is conditioned to a CO2 content

    of 5%, as per European standard EN 13295-2004 and relative humidity of 60% to 70% and

    temperature of 27C to 30 C. The chambers are easily constructed using aluminium sheet

    and Gaskets and sealing clamps can be used to make an air tight system. Relative humidity

    was controlled with multiple pans of saturate salt solution composed of lime, NaCl and water.

    The cover for steel reinforcement for beam sample was 5 mm. Periodic checks need to be

    made to make sure the solution is not under-saturated or dried out. The CO2 gas atmosphere

    was inducted using compressed CO2 gas regulator. The humidity and temperature was

    measured by hygrometer. In this experiment a 5% CO2 and 95% oxygen atmosphere was

    chosen to shorten the test period to suit project requirements. An industrial gas mixture of

    5%CO2 in air was tried. The gas regulator was useful in keeping the flow rate and gas pressure

    15 to 20 kg /cm2.

    It is indicated in Figure 2 and Figure 3.

  • Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand

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    Figure 2 Carbonation chamber Figure 3 Schematic diagram for Carbonation process

    Table 2 Effect of 2% H2SO4 on compressive strength of M 25 grade concrete.

    Mix

    Proportions

    MIX 1

    (M25A)

    MIX 2

    (M25-A4)

    MIX 3

    (M25-B6)

    No. of Days C1

    N/mm2

    C2

    N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2 N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2 N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    30 32.74 30.93 5.5 27.9 26.78 4.0 35,8 34.54 3.5

    60 32.74 30.28 7.4 27.9 26.10 6.5 35.8 34.08 4.8

    90 32.74 30.25 7.6 27.9 26.10 6.7 35.8 34.08 4.8

    120 32.74 30.25 7.6 27.90 26.00 6.7 35.8 34,10 4.95

    Table 3 Effect of 2% HCl on compressive strength of M 25 grade concrete

    Mix

    proportions MIX 1(M25-A) MIX 2 (M25-A4) MIX 3 (M25-B6)

    No. of Days C1

    N/mm2

    C2

    N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2

    N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2 N/mm2

    % C.S.

    Loss

    30 32.74 27.40 3.25 27.90 27.0 3.25 35.8 34.76 3.0

    60 32.74 27.00 4.6 27.90 26.64 4.5 35.8 34.40 4.0

    90 32.74 27.00 4.6 27.90 26.61 4.6 35.8 34.33 4.2

    120 32.74 27.0 4.6 27.90 26.61 4.6 35.8 34.33 4.2

    Abbreviations- C1- compressive strength of concrete before immersion in acidic water

    solution (28 days curing), C2-compressive strength of concrete after immersion in acidic

    Water solution C.S- % compressive strength loss

    Figure 4 Strength loss in M25grade concrete after immersion in H2SO4solution

    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    30 60 90 120

    % S

    tren

    gth

    loss

    No. of days immerssion in 2%H2SO4 solution

    Percentage Strength Loss in M25 grade concrete after

    immerssion in 2%H2SO4Solution

    M25-A4 M25-A M25-B6

  • A. R. Narde and Dr A. R. Gajbhiye

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 592 editor@iaeme.com

    Figure 5 Strength loss in M25 grade concrete after immersion in HCl solution

    Table 4 Variation of compressive strength (C.S.) on of concrete after 120 days carbonation

    Mix

    Proportions MIX ( controlled mix) MIX (critical mix)

    Grade of

    concrete

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2

    N/mm2

    %

    variation

    of C.S.

    C.D.

    mm

    C1

    N/mm2

    C2

    N/mm2

    %

    variation

    of C.S.

    C. D.

    mm

    M25 32.74 34.64 5.82 2.0 35.80 37.75 5.45 1.0

    Abbreviations

    C1 - compressive strength of concrete before carbonation(after 28 days curing)

    C2 - compressive strength of concrete after carbonation

    C.S - % compressive strength increases Or decreases (variation of strength)

    C.D - carbonation depth

    Table 5 Chemical Composition of M25 Concrete by XRF analysis

    Concrete M25- A(controlled mix) M25 (critical mix) 22.5%FA+7.5%

    RHA+30%QS

    Un

    affected

    H2SO4

    affected-

    120 days

    HCl

    affected-

    120days

    carbonated-

    120 days

    Un

    affected

    H2SO4

    affected-

    120 days

    HCl

    affected-

    120days

    Carbonated-

    120 days

    Minerals % by

    mass

    % by

    mass

    % by

    mass % by mass

    % by

    mass

    % by

    mass

    % by

    mass % by mass

    Na2 O Sodium

    oxide 2.28 1.040 0.900 0.728 3.27 0.962 1.198 0.897

    MgO

    Magnesium

    oxide

    2.54 2.343 2.23 2.48 3.37 2.439 2.956 2.243

    SiO2 Silicon

    dioxide 50.10 49.96 49.31 40.79 50.29 45.98 43.36 44.05

    Al2O3 Aluminum

    trioxide

    11.13 8.489 8.048 7.621 12.67 9.904 10.70 9.758

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

    30 60 90 120%

    Str

    ength

    lo

    ss

    No. of days immerssion in2% HCL

    Percentage Steength Loss in M25 concrete after

    immerssion in 2% HCL solution

    M25-A4 M25-A M25-B6

  • Durability Studies on Concrete with Fly Ash, Rice Husk Ash and Quarry Sand

    http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 593 editor@iaeme.com

    Concrete M25- A(controlled mix) M25 (critical mix) 22.5%FA+7.5%

    RHA+30%QS

    Fe O3 Iron

    trioxide 6.36 6.481 6.188 6.068 10.05 7.355 8.692 7.049

    TiO2 Titanium

    oxide 0.90 0.814 0.738 0.750 1.38 1.057 1.179 1.015

    CaO Calcium

    oxide 16.79 17.51 19.04 24.91 17.41 15.70 14.66 19.64

    K2O Potassium

    oxide 1.20 1.417 1.588 1.264 0.56 1.105 1.122 1.156

    Table 6 Result of Rapid chloride penetration test ( RCPT test)

    Mix Charge passed Charge passed

    (Coulombs) (28 Days) (Coulombs) (90Days)

    M25-A 1285 1195

    M25-A4 1260 1152

    M25-B6 1164 1100

    5. OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION

    5.1. Acid resistance of concrete

    It has been observed that controlled mix is more affected by action of hydrochloric acid and

    Sulfuric acid. The resistances against acid get reduce due to presence of more amount internal

    voids and this draw back can be rectified by use of fly ash, and rice husk ash which fill up

    vo...

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