DWDM Complete

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    DENSE WAVE DIVISION

    MULTIPLEXING

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    OPTICAL MULTIPLEXERS

    SINGLE FIBER

    Wavelength MultiplexingMULTIPLE FIBER

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    Wave Length Multiplexing

    Multiplexing multiple wavelengths over asingle fiber

    Two Major TypesCWDM Coarse Wave Length Division Multiplexing

    Channel Spacing 20 nanometers

    DWDM Dense Wave Length Division Multiplexing

    Channel Spacing 8 nanometers

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    WDM Categories

    Wrapperless SystemsProtocol Independent

    Wrapper Systems

    Framed optical channel

    Various low-level transmission functions

    Error checking

    Performance monitoring

    Forward Error Correction (FEC)

    Management channel to support OAM&P

    Optical bitstream interpretable by higher-level

    protocols

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    New Service Offerings

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    Emerging Scenario

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    TDM Vs WDM

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    TDM Vs WDM

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    The Shrinking ContinentThe Shrinking Continent

    1993

    LA NY

    2.5 Gb/s/fiber pair 40km between regenerators $20,000 per DS1 (excluding fiber costs)

    OC-48

    . . .

    1998

    LA NY

    100 Gb/s/fiber pair 400km between regenerators $1,000 per DS1 (excluding fiber costs)

    100Gb/s with DWDM

    . . .

    40x Increase

    in bandwidth

    Technology is conquering distanceTechnology is conquering distance

    10x Increase

    in regen spacing

    20x decreased

    in cost

    Advantage - DWDM

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    DWDM Evolution

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    WAVELENGTH WINDOWS

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    ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID

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    Frequency Utilization for Fiber Application

    Window Label Range(nm) Fiber type Applications

    First -- 820-900 MF LAN-Type

    Second S 1280-1350 SMF Single-Third C 1530-1565 NZDSF DWDM1

    Fourth L 1565-1620 NZDSF

    Fifth -- 1350-1450 SMF AllwaveTM DWDM

    Fifth -- 1450-1528 NZDSF

    DWDM/MAN2

    1DWDM may also include single wavelength application2 Currently, EDFAs do not perform below the range of 1530 nm.

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    WAVELENGTH MULTIPLEXING

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    Wavelength Multiplexing

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    Multiple Lambdas

    Delhi

    Bombay

    Cal

    Chennai

    NagpurX-Connect

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    Optical Amplifier

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    OPTICAL ADD-DROP MULTIPLEXERS

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    Drop-ADD Wavelength N

    1, 2,.., N

    OA OA

    OADM

    1, 2,.., N1, 2,.., N

    N N

    Fiber Fiber

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    Optical Switch

    Fiber Fiber

    1, 2,.., N 1, 2,.., N

    Optical

    DemultiplexerOptical

    Multiplexer

    1 1

    Optical 2 X 2 Switch

    Drop-Add wavelength 1

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    A Typical DWDM Link

    Channel 2

    Channel 1

    Channel N

    1

    2

    N

    Opt.MUX

    OA OA

    Fiber

    Opt.De-MUX

    1, 2,.., N 1, 2,.., N

    OADM

    1

    2

    N

    = Laser Diode

    = Receiver

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    HUB

    OADM

    OADM

    OADM

    STM

    DWDM Ring Network

    IP

    1, 2,.., N

    1, 2,.., N 1, 2,.., N

    1, 2,.., N

    O/E

    IP

    STM

    j j

    k k

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    DWDM Application

    O/ETCP/IP

    O/EATM

    O/ESTM

    PLL

    OPT.

    Demux

    1, 2,.., N

    Single-Mode Fiber

    Detectors

    PHY

    TCP/IP

    ATM

    STM

    Electronic Regime Photonic Regime

    Receive Direction

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    DWDM RING - Example

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    Optical Transmission Problems

    AttenuationLight Absorption

    Raleigh Scattering

    Bending Losses

    Dispersion

    Chromatic Dispersion

    Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

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    Non-Linearity

    Generation of spurious harmonic and sumfrequencies

    Unexpected loss effects

    Inherent characteristic of electromagnetic

    energy passing through a physical medium

    Effects

    Scattering

    Refractive Index Phenomena

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    Non Linearity Effects

    Scattering PhenomenaStimulated Brillouin Backscattering

    Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Refractive Index Phenomena

    Self phase modulation

    Cross phase modulation

    Four-wave mixing

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    Network Classification

    Single-Hop Networks Data stream travels from source to destination as a light stream

    No conversion at any of the intermediate nodes

    Types

    1. Broadcast-And-Select Networks

    Star topology with passive star coupler device

    Used in LAN/MAN

    2. Wavelength Routed Networks

    Wavelength selective switching sub-system

    a. Wavelength Path Switching

    Dynamic signal switching from one path to anotherb. Wavelength Conversion

    Reuse of same wavelength in different parts of the same network(different fibers)

    Multi-Hop Networks Small no of wavelength channels employed by the network

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    FIBEROPTICS - Basics

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    Journey through the Optical Tunnel

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    TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION

    Snells Law: n1*sin1 = n2*sin 2

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    Transmit-Receive Overview

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    Transmitter - fundamentals of emission

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    Source composition

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    Light Source comparison

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    Transmitter & Receiver Functions

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    Transmitter Simple Block Diagram

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    Transmitter Basic Specifications

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    Laser/ LED Drivers

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    LASER Temperature Compensation

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    Receiver Basic Specifications

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    Receiver Block Diagram

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    Dense Wave Division Multiplexing

    DWDM

    Standard support 1000 colors of light, only 160 colors

    supported today

    Key players - Ciena, Cerent (Cisco), Lucent, Marconi, Nortel,

    Siemens, Sycamore

    Supports PoS packet over Sonet to Wavelength Supports LAMBDA routing

    Attenuation

    Wavelength 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6(mm)

    1.0 dB/KM

    0.3

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    What is an Optical Wave?

    An optical wave is a transponder-based service

    which provides unprotected, customized bandwidthprimarily for data traffic and allows data carriers

    requiring low restoration rates to provide protection

    switching using their own equipment.Wave 1

    Wave 2

    Wave 3

    Wave 4

    Wave 1

    Wave 2

    Wave 3

    Wave 4

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    Customized Bandwidth

    OC-48STM16

    OC-3/STM1

    OC-12/STM4OC-24/STM8

    OC-N

    Delhi

    Bombay

    Cal

    Chennai

    NagpurX-Connect

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    Propagation mode

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    Single Mode Fiber

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    Number of Modes:

    M = V2/2

    Multi Mode Fiber

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    Graded Index Fiber

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    Propagation in Graded Index Fiber

    Number of Modes, M = (a/(a+2))*(v2/2)

    where a is Profile parameter

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    Energy Distribution in SM Fiber

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    Attenuation in Optical Fiber

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    Power expressed in dbmIts simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db.

    So if mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW)

    Where mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log10(P/mW)

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    DispersionBW Losses

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    Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber

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    Dispersion in Step Indexed Fiber

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    Graded Index Fiber less dispersion

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    LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm

    Chromatic Dispersion

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    Material Dispersion

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    Wave guide Dispersion

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    Polarization

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    Bending Losses