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  • 7/29/2019 Dyed & Printed


    Daubed Textiles

    As an expression of human

    emotion and intellect ,we human

    beings create images of colloquial

    and special moments of life, invarious forms , mediums and

    surfaces .

    Prehistoric people created

    images on walls on caves and

    painted their primitive costumes

    also on various subjects.

    A region wise brief overview shows : Native American dress

    material of buffalo-hide contained

    crude paintings on sign-language

    patterns as well as ceremonial


    One of the most striking of

    all daubed textiles are theBogolanfinimud cloth of Mali.

    These are decorated with geometric

    patterns in white on a black

    background. Mostly dyed cloths are

    resisted by river mud patterns. The

    exposed area is bleached with

    natural bleaching agents to create


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    Painted Textiles

    Painting on textiles is a stylemostly used to prepare pieces of

    textiles for religious, educational,

    documentation or publicity

    purpose. Rarely this type of

    fabric styling was used for dress

    material traditionally.

    The style of fabric paintingas a tradition is richest in India.

    In Rajasthan painted textiles are

    used as a backdrop and

    supporting document for telling


    A Mata-ni-pachediis a

    special decorative cloth for

    temples in western India ,

    depicting legends of Devi Durga.

    Southern American

    regions of Ecuador or Columbia

    has heritage of painting textiles.

    A painted bark cloth from Colum bia

    A Mata-ni-pachedi from

    Gujrat A Bhilw ara texti le pieceDepict ing Pabuji folklore.

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    Pen Work (Kalamkari)

    The Persian word kalamkari forthe pen-worked textiles from India

    proves popular demand of these type

    of textiles not only within India but at

    abroad as well. These textiles were

    exported as value added trade items

    from south-east coast of India to

    Persia and Europe since late 16th


    After Mughol empire and later

    during European invasions this trade

    was taken over by the foreigners.

    A kalamkarifabric imported from India used

    As persian prayer cloth with patterns inspiredBy Persian mythology.

    An important event of Mahabharata depicted in a

    Kalamkariwork from Andhra Pradesh

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    Woodblock Printing

    Taking impression of a natural

    shape on the fabric surface with the

    help of natural dyes, pigments or

    mordant has been practiced all over

    the world since early part of human


    Printing fabric with pre-curved

    wooden blocks were mastered bycraftsmen in Indian subcontinent.

    This is considered to be one of the

    cheapest and quickest process of

    fabric designing all over the world.

    Though the traditional woodblock

    printing has made way for mechanised

    modern printing techniques , still in

    parts of India and some pockets of

    Africa , the process is still alive.

    Bagh printing of Madhya Pradesh is

    one such glorious wood block printing

    heritage which is being rescued from

    the brink of extinction by NIFT.

    An woodblock printed yardage from Bagh, Madhya Pradesh

    A piece of Adinkra cloth from Ghana

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    Polychrome Woodblock


    Basic art of woodblock printingwas developed in monochrome. Later

    in various part of India and central Asia

    the art of using multiple synchronised

    blocks was mastered.

    This multiple block technique

    actually helped to introduce different

    colours as can be seen in polychrome

    woodblock printing.

    This was one of the very few mass

    production process successfully

    developed in India until they were

    overwhelmed by competition from

    English and Scottish factories in the

    18th and 19th centuries. Since then the

    Indian woodblock printed cloth had

    satisfied a global demand for cheap

    printed cloth.

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    Stenciling is a widespread techniqueused either to implant a design

    directly, or to apply starch in the dye-

    resist process.

    The Japanese perfected this stenciling

    technique as early as 8th century .

    Their specialty of stenciling became

    famous as katazome.This was the mother process of the

    present day hugely popular screen-

    printing process.

    Some other parts of the world has also

    seen some advent of this process, like

    Afghanistan and India.

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    Resist Printing

    Resisting certain preselected

    parts of the fabric from taking up

    colour while rest of the fabric is

    getting dyed and thus creating

    patterns, is the basic principle of

    resist printing.

    This simple yet versatile

    technique has fascinated human

    imagination and has been widely

    practiced all over the world.

    To achieve desired resist

    effect different types of

    techniques are adopted at

    different parts of the world; and

    accordingly the processes are


    When certain portion of thefabric are tied by some kind of

    thread or tape which wont allow

    dye penetration while rest part of

    the fabric is getting dyed is

    known as tie and dye.


    A stenciled adire eleko, from Nigeria showing king George V & Queen


    In 1935 when Silver Jubilee celebrations of their coronation took place all

    over the world.

    ) i d

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    a) Tie and Dye

    The technique of resisting by tying

    fabrics together in different patterns is

    practiced all over the world in slightly

    varying forms; giving rise to some

    distinctive patterns of their own.

    In (bandhni) India and (plangi)Indonesia the fabrics are gathered

    around fingertips and tied where as in

    (shibori)Japan vary delicate patterns

    were produced by tying tiny bunches

    with grains of rice inside the hold.

    In west African region stones or sticks

    were used to control shapes. By repeating tie & dye process a

    number of times, using different dye

    each time, a multi-coloured effect is

    achieved. In Indonesia this is known as


    Presently advent of information

    spread and trade has seen techniquesbeing cross adapted all over the


    Indian Bandhnistyle of resist became

    so popular that it has become

    colloquial by the term bandanna,

    which entered English language

    dictionary as the word for spotted


    A womans stole in tie-n-dye from


    A womans stole in tie-n-dye from

    Rajasthan ( Bandhni)

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    Stitched Resist

    Stitched resist, like tie and dye,

    prevents dye reaching parts of the

    cloth. In Indonesia this techniqueis known as tritikand in Nigeria as

    adire alabere. It is a commonly

    used technique in Japan,

    Indonesia and West African

    countries of Senegal, Mali, the

    Gambia, Sierra Leon, Burkina

    Faso, Nigeria and Cameroon.

    In some places of Indonesia

    (Sumatra) effects are produced in

    combination of some other resist

    technique along with stitched

    resist technique, the process is

    called Selendangs.

    A salendangfrom Sumatra, here the dot patterns have been

    Tied but the egg shapes and the linear motifs are stitched.

    An indigo resisted shirt from Cameroon, to produce such an

    Elaborate pattern, the fabric has been embroidered with raphia

    To resist the dye and the stitches then removed to exposeThe un dyed cloth.

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    Leharia and Mothara

    In the 19th and early 20th centuries,

    the Marwaris , the dominant business

    community of Rajasthan and India,

    wore elaborately tied, brightlycoloured turbans as their

    distinguishing mark. These turbans

    were made by the leharia technique.

    This process is continued to be

    practiced in the dyeing quarters of

    Jodhpur, Jaipur , Udaipur and


    Long length or turban cloths are

    folded first in usual width and across

    fold . Then the folded fabric is rolled

    diagonally, ties are placed at intervals

    and the roll is dyed. This way wavy

    resist lines are produced on the cloth,

    known as leharia.

    In case ofmothara the long turban

    fabrics are folded diagonally from one

    corner. Ties are placed at regular

    intervals, dyed then unfolded and the

    process is repeated from the opposite

    corner, hence check patterns are


    Mothara Leharia

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    In Nigeria and Japan starch is usedas a resist medium for designs on cloth

    to be dyed with Indigo.

    In Nigeria the starch is applied by

    hand. The starch is derived from

    either cassava or cornflower and

    known as lafun or eko. The starch is

    applied on the whole cloth and after

    drying the patterns are scrapped on

    the surface of the fabric, then the

    whole cloth is indigo died. Since the

    starch applied is not completely

    impermeable so the patterns assume

    some amount of dye and the

    appearance of the cloth is light blue

    motifs on dark indigo background. Thetechnique has a similarity to

    Indonesian batik because the motifs

    are derived in negative.

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    In Japan the starchresisting was very popular and the

    application and patterning was

    done either by hand or by

    stenciling. The process is known

    as tsutsugakiif the starch is

    applied by hand . If the starch is

    applied by stencil then the

    process is known as katazome.

    The starch used is made of rice

    and known as tsutsu.

    A Tsuts ugaki

    A Katazome

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    Wax Resist

    The application of a wax-resist

    before dyeing to form a pattern in

    negative is most often referred to bythe Javanese word batik. Batik is

    practiced in India, Srilanka, China,

    South-East Asia, Turkey and West-

    Africa, but in Indonesia, on the island

    of Java, the craft has been brought to

    an acme of refinement. Nowhere else

    has wax-resist cloth been so finely


    The origins of batik are obscure, but

    what is certain is that the Javanese

    invention of the canting waxing

    instrument enabled the finest hand

    drawn batik to be produced.

    In Java in the middle of the 19th

    century a very new technique of waxresisting was evolved where engraved

    copper plates in the line of early

    European printing blocks were used to

    create negative pattern before


    An Indonesian Batik

    A Printed Wax Resist

    From Java