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EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT. Sport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of life Gambling was widespread Sports played varied by tribe. NATIVE AMERICANS SPORTS. Baggataway (lacrosse) Shinny (hockey) Double-ball (field hockey) Footraces Archery - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT</p></li><li><p>NATIVE AMERICANS SPORTSSport was closely aligned with social, spiritual, and economic aspects of lifeGambling was widespreadSports played varied by tribe</p></li><li><p>Baggataway (lacrosse)Shinny (hockey)Double-ball (field hockey)FootracesArcherySwimmingFishingCanoeing</p></li><li><p>PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE COLONIES Early settlerssurvived with hunting, fishing, and work-related recreationPuritansforbid frivolous activitiesDutchbowling; sleighing; horse racingVirginiansfox hunting; horse racing; hawking; cockfightingBritish influencerounders; cricket; boxing; track and field </p></li><li><p>EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATIONIntroduction of German gymnastics1823-1833Round Hill SchoolJoseph Cogswell and George BancroftDaily sports and gymnastics1825-1830Charles Beckturner and friend of Friedrich JahnEstablished an outdoor gymnastics areaTranslated Jahn's book</p></li><li><p>EARLY AMERICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATIONCharles Follenturner and pupil of Jahn'sEstablished gymnasium in Boston in 1826Taught the first German gymnastics at Harvard in 1826Francis Lieberpupil of Jahn and a turnerDirected the Boston gymnasium in 1827Started a pool in Boston in 1827</p></li><li><p>GERMAN GYMNASTICSIn the late 1820s and 1830s, decline of interest in German gymnastics Round Hill School closed; Follen, Lieber, and Beck went into other jobsNewness wore offToo much emphasis on nationalism and strengthOnly German teachersRevival of German gymnastics in the 1850s when immigrants moved to the Midwest186022 turnvereins; 1,672 members</p></li><li><p>Turnvereins</p></li><li><p>CATHARINE BEECHERDirector of the Hartford Seminary for Girls (1824) and the founder of the Western Female Institute (1837)Calisthenicsa course of exercises designed to promote health and thus to secure beauty and strength (30 min a day)No special room or apparatusFor the whole family, but especially for womendiagrams of how to execute exercises</p></li><li><p>CATHARINE BEECHERPrinciples from Per Henrik Ling's Swedish gymnasticsHer program was probably the first system adapted to the needs of AmericansShe was one of the first to actively struggle to establish physical education as a part of the school curriculum on a daily basis</p></li><li><p>DIOCLESION LEWIS Light gymnastics or exercises with wands, rings, bean-bags, dumbbells, and Indian clubs along with musicteacher directed exercisesBorrowed ideas from Catharine Beecher and Per Henrik Ling (Swedish)1861-1868He founded: Normal Institute for Physical Education in Bostonfirst teacher training school for physical education in America</p></li><li><p>SWEDISH GYMNASTICSHartvig NissenNorwegianIn 1883 came to Washington, D.C. and taught Swedish gymnasticsTaught at Harvard Summer School, Sargent Normal School, and Posse-Nissen School</p></li><li><p>SWEDISH GYMNASTICSBaron Nils PosseGraduated from the Royal Gymnastics Central Institute in SwedenCame to Boston in 1885Taught at the Boston Normal School of Gymnastics (1889-1890)Established the Posse Normal School in 1890</p></li><li><p>Field Hockey 1906</p></li><li><p>BOSTON NORMAL SCHOOL OF GYMNASTICS 1889Founded by Mary HemenwayDirected by Amy Morris HomansBaron Posse was the first teacherPurpose was to train teachers in Swedish gymnasticsMoved to Wellesley College as the Department of Hygiene and Physical Education in 1909</p></li><li><p>Amy Morris Homans (1848-1933)Founded the Association of Directors of Physical Education for woman (1915)</p></li><li><p>BOSTON CONFERENCE ON PHYSICAL TRAINING 1889Purpose was "to bring to the attention of the general public and the leaders in the field the Swedish system."Speakers also for the German system, the Sargent system, and Hitchcock's program</p></li><li><p>EDWARD HITCHCOCK (1861-1911) Anthropometricsfind the average, ideal college male using age, weight, height, chest girth, arm girth, forearm girth, lung capacity, and pull-ups</p></li><li><p>EDWARD HITCHCOCKProgram had an emphasis on health (AMHERST)Required 30-minute class four times per week for all students20 minutes for light gymnastics and marching as a class10 minutes for individual apparatus work or sports</p></li><li><p>DUDLEY SARGENT (1879-1919)Apparatuschest weights; chest pulleys; chest developers; leg machines, and rowing machines used in individualized programs</p></li><li><p>DUDLEY SARGENTHARVARDAnthropometricsto find the ideal student, but mostly to establish individualized goals and programs for each student No Swedish or German gymnasticsSports, such as boxing, rowing, and baseball, were promoted</p></li><li><p>DUDLEY SARGENTSargent Normal School1881initially taught women at Harvard Annex and later founded a teacher training school for physical education Harvard Summer School (1887-1932)advanced teacher training program</p></li><li><p>DELPHINE HANNA OBERLIN (1885-1920)1903First woman professor of physical educationAnthropometrics of college womenInstructed Luther Gulick, Thomas Wood, Jay Nash, and Jesse Williams</p></li><li><p>WILLIAM ANDERSON Chautauqua Summer School of Physical Education (1886-1930s)Brooklyn (Anderson) Normal School (1886-1953)</p></li><li><p>ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 1885Founded by William AndersonMajor issues between 1885-1900AnthropometricsBattle of the Systems</p></li><li><p> BATTLE OF THE SYSTEMSSYSTEMPURPOSEGerman gymnasticsDeveloped individual abilities and healthy, strong youth for war or emergencies using apparatus Swedish gymnasticsPromoted health, correct expression, and beauty of performance using exact movement patterns</p><p>Hitchcocks system Emphasized health through required exercises with light apparatus</p><p>Sargents system Advocated hygienic, educative, recreative, and remedial aims through individualized exercises on apparatus</p><p>Association gymnastics Contributed to the development of the all-around man</p></li><li><p>EARLIER NAMES1885 Association for the Advancement of Physical Education1886 American Association for the Advancement of Physical Education 1903 American Physical Education Association1937 American Association for Health and Physical Education 1938 American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation 1974 American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance1979 American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance </p></li><li><p>YOUNG MENS CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION AND YOUNG WOMENS CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION YMCA founded in 1844 in England by George WilliamsYMCA founded in 1851 in BostonYWCA founded in 1866 in Boston by Mrs. Henry Durant</p></li><li><p>YMCA AND YWCA1885YMCA Training School in Springfieldto train YMCA directorsPurposes of the YMCAto develop the all-around man (intellectual, physical, and spiritual)Central School of Hygiene and Physical Education was the YWCA training school</p></li><li><p>PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS1896-1903 American Physical Education Review1903-1930 APEA Review1930-1938 Journal of Health and Physical Education 1938-1974 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation1975-1981 Journal of Physical Education and Recreation1981-presentJournal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance</p></li><li><p>PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS1930-1979Research Quarterly1980-presentResearch Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1940-presentThe Physical Educator Phi Epsilon Kappa1963-present Quest NAPEHE1892-1896Physical Educator1901-1928Journal of Physical Training YMCA</p></li><li><p>DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS1868New York Athletic Club founded1888Amateur Athletic Union started (AAU)1852First intercollegiate sport for men (Harvard and Yale in rowing)1859First intercollegiate baseball game</p></li><li><p>DEVELOPMENT OF AMATEUR SPORTS1869First intercollegiate football game1896First intercollegiate sport for women in basketball </p></li></ul>


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