Eco friendly agricultural practicesName :- Nikita NAME:-NIKITA Click to edit Master subtitle style TIWARI Class:-ix-c CLASS:-IX-C Roll no:-26 ROLL NO:-26
introductionOrganic farmingis the form of agriculturethat relies on techniques such ascrop rotation ,greenmanure,compostand biological pest control. Organic farming uses fertilizers and pesticides but excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured (synthetic)fertilizers,pesticides (which includeherbicides, insecticidesandfungicides), plant growth regulatorssuch as hormones, livestockantibiotics, food additives, genetically modified organisms, human sewagesludge, and nanomaterials. "Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils,
Methods of methods ecofriendly agricultural practices5/15/12
Crop rotationandgreen manure("
cover crops") help to provide nitrogen throughlegumes(more precisely, the Fabaceaefamily) which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through symbiosis withrhizobialbacteria.Intercropping, which is sometimes used for insect and disease control, can also increase soil nutrients, but the competition between the legume and the crop can be problematic and wider spacing between crop rows is required. Organic farmers also use animalmanure, certain processed fertilizers such as seed meal and variousmineralpowders such as rock phosphateandgreensand, a naturally occurring form ofpotash which provides potassium. Together these methods help to controlerosion.
Organicweedmanagement promotes weed suppression, rather than weed elimination, by enhancing crop competition andphytotoxiceffects on weeds.Organic farmers integrate cultural, biological, mechanical, physical and chemical tactics to manage weeds without synthetic herbicides. Mechanical and physical weed control practices used on organic farms can be broadly grouped as: Tillage- Turning the soil between crops to incorporate crop residues and soil amendments; remove existing weed growth and prepare a seedbed for planting. Cultivation- Disturbing the soil after seeding. Mowing and cutting - Removing top growth of weeds; Flame weeding and thermal weeding - Using heat to kill weeds.
Controlling other organisms
Organisms aside from weeds that cause problems on organic farms include arthropods.
(e.g., insects,mites),nematodes,fungi andbacteria. Organic farmers use a wide range ofIntegrated Pest Managementpractices to prevent pests and diseases. These include, but are not limited to, crop rotation and nutrient management; sanitation to remove pest habitat; provision of habitat 5/15/12 beneficial organisms; selection of for
Green manuring an ecofriendly agricultural practices
Green Manuring is a very good way of increasing the fertility of the soil, and can give huge benefits for farmers. Green manure crops are primarily used in environmentally friendly agricultural practices to reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and herbicide.1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Characteristics of green manure crops Plants are fleshy and softFast growing Fast to decompose Leguminous crop Don't attract pests and diseases Don't compete with crops Provide nutrients needed in the soil
Some commonly used green manure crops:
Sun hemp(Crotalaria juncea) It is a vigorous growing green manure crop, which can be incorporated at 10 weeks after sowing. It does not withstand water logging. The seed rate is 25-35 kg/ha. The green matter yield is 15-20 t/ha. Quantity of nitrogen fixed by the crop is 75-80 kg/ha. Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeate)
It is a quick growing succulent green manure crop, which can be incorporated 5/15/12
Dhaincha(Sesbania rostrata) It is a green manure crop, which has nodules both on the stem and root. It thrives well under waterlogged condition. The normal seed rate is 30 to 40 kg per ha. To get early, uniform germination and vigorous seedlings, seeds have to be scarified with concentrated sulphuric acid for 15 minutes and then washed thoroughly with fresh water and sown immediately. A green matter yield of 15 to 20 t/ha equivalent to 150180 kg N/ha is obtained within a period of 8 to 10 weeks.