of 32/32
Ecology Ecology

Ecology. Ecology Ecology = the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment Ecology = the study of the interactions among organisms

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)

Text of Ecology. Ecology Ecology = the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment...

  • Ecology

  • Ecology

    Ecology = the study of the interactions among organisms and their environment

  • The nonliving or physical things in an environment are called ABIOTIC factors. Examples:- Sunlight- Temperature- Rainfall- AirSoil EarthquakesAbiotic Factors

  • Biotic Factors

    The living or biological things in an environment are called the biotic factors.

    Examples:parasitism disease predatorspreycompetition

  • Levels of OrganizationEcologists study organisms ranging from the various levels of organization:SpeciesPopulationCommunityEcosystemBiomeBiosphere

  • Species =a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring

    Levels of Organization

  • Levels of OrganizationPopulation =group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area.EX: all the turtles in Town Lake

  • Levels of OrganizationCommunity = a collection of different populations that live together

  • Levels of OrganizationEcosystem = a collection of interacting populations and their physical surroundings (abiotic factors)

  • Levels of OrganizationBiome = a group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities

  • Levels of Organization

    Biosphere= the part of the earth where life exists including land, water, air, and atmosphereIt extends from high in the atmosphere to the bottom of the oceans.If the earth could be shrunk to the size of an apple, the biosphere would be no thicker than the apple's skin.

  • Habitat vs. NicheHABITAT - homePlace where an organism livesLots of organisms have the same habitat

    NICHE - jobRole and position a species has in its environmentOrganisms want a unique niche

  • Habitat vs. NicheHABITATEx: red foxs habitat is the forests edge, meadows, and river bank

    NICHEEx: red foxs niche is a predator which feeds on the small mammals etc. that is active at night

  • Symbiotic RelationshipsSymbiosis = permanent (living together) relationship between two different organisms3 types:MutualismCommensalismParasitism

  • Symbiotic RelationshipsMutualism = when both organisms benefit from each other

    EX: clownfish and sea anemoneEX: lichenEX: flower and bee

  • Symbiotic Relationships2. Commensalism = one organism benefits, the other is not helped or harmed

    EX: pilot fish and shark(fish eats scraps from the sharks food)

  • Symbiotic Relationships3. Parasitism = one organism benefits, the other is harmed

    EX: tapewormsEX: ticks

  • Predation RelationshipsPredator = an animal that feeds on another animalPrey = that animal that is killed and eaten

    EX: lion (predator) hunts and eats the zebra (prey)

  • Population SizeSize of a population changes over time.Most populations stabilize rather than grow endlessly.Why? Because of demands on the ecosystem (ex. Enough food?)

  • Limiting FactorsLimiting Factors = any environmental factors that limit the size of a populationEX: Availability of foodAvailability of waterAvailability of oxygenAvailability of sunlight

  • Density- Dependent Limiting FactorsLimit the growth of a population when the pop gets to a certain sizePopulation density = the # of organisms in a given area

  • Density- Dependent Limiting FactorsTwo Main FactorsCompetition- when a pop gets big, organisms compete for available resources

    EX: group of trees fighting for sunlight, soil, or water

  • Density- Dependent Limiting Factors2. Predation if the predator population becomes too large, there will not be enough prey to support it

  • Density-Independent FactorsLimit the growth of a population regardless of its sizeEX:Climatic events like extreme cold/heat, tidal waves, volcanoes, flooding, drought

  • Carrying CapacityCarrying capacity = the largest population that a given environment can support over a long period of timeImportant for conservationists in managing wildlife pops

  • CompetitionFundamental niche

    Realized niche

    (remember: niche = occupation habitat = home)http://www.copernicusproject.ucr.edu/ssi/HSBiologyResources.htm

  • Key features cont.DispersionRandom, even, clumped distributionshttp://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0337e/A0337E125.jpghttp://www.geo.arizona.edu/Antevs/nats104/00lect21.htmlGREAT WEBSITE:

  • QUESTIONSWhich of the following is a symbiotic relationship where both organisms benefit?a. mutualismb. commensalismc. altruismd. competition

  • Questions2. Which of the following pairs of animals are most likely to have a predator-prey relationship?a. dog and tapewormb. buffalo and tickbirdc. spider and flyd. whale and barnacle

  • Questions3. Some species of shark allow small fish to enter their mouths without eating them. Inside the mouth, the small fish feed on debris around the teeth. The sharks get their teeth cleaned, which reduces the risk of decay and infection. Which term best categorizes this relationship?a. predationb. mutualismc. commensalismd. parasitism

  • Questions4. Which of the following is a density-dependent limitation on population growth?a. wildfireb. competitionc. unlimited nutrientsd. severe drought