EcologyEcology is the scientific study of the interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environments.
HabitatsThe place where an organism lives and that provides the things the organism needs is called its habitat!Food, water, and shelter.Biotic Factors The living parts of an ecosystem. Animals, plants, fungi, bacteria.Abiotic Factors The nonliving parts of an ecosystem.Water, Sunlight, Oxygen, Temperature, and soil.
OrganismThe smallest unit of ecological study.Wildebeest
PopulationsA population is a group of individual organisms of the same species living in a particular area. Herd of Wildebeest
Exponential GrowthOccurs when the population multiplies by a constant factor at constant time intervals.
Limiting FactorsA factor that restricts the growth of a population. SpaceFood availabilityDisease
CommunityAll of the organisms inhabiting a particular area make up a community.
Ecosystem and BiosphereAn ecosystem includes the abiotic and biotic factors in an area. The biosphere is the sum of all Earths ecosystems.
How do organisms get energy?Every organism requires energy to carry out life processes such as growing, moving, and reproducing. Producers (autotroph) synthesize their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Consumers (heterotrophs) obtain their energy by eating other organisms. Decomposers -
Types of ConsumersHerbivore eats plants.Omnivore eats plants and animals.Carnivore eats animals.
Food ChainsThe pathway of energy transfer form one organism to another is called a food chain. What would happen if one organism is overhunted and removed from the food chain?What is the source of all energy?
Food WebA pattern of feeding represented by interconnected and branching food chains is called a food web.
Energy PyramidEmphasizes the energy loss from one organism to the next in a food chain. Only 10 % is passed on to the next level, the rest is lost to the ecosystem in the form of heat.
Types of Relationships among species!Predation an interaction in which one organism eats another. There are two individuals that participate. Predator and PreyFox is a predator and the rabbit is the prey.
Symbiotic RelationshipsA symbiotic relationship is a close interaction between species in which one of the species lives in or on the other. Parasitism one benefits and the other is harmed.Mutualism both species benefitCommensalism one benefits and the other is neither helped or harmed
Ecological SuccessionThe process of community change is called ecological succession. What would happen if you left the field behind Heritage uncut for a couple of years?
Primary SuccessionWhen a community arises in a lifeless area that has no soil. Pioneer species are the first to colonize barren rock. Climax community takes hold several hundred or thousand years later. The forest has grown to its full capacity.
Secondary SuccessionWhen a disturbance damages an existing community but leaves the soil intact, the change that follows is called secondary succession. FiresLand cleared for farming, then abandoned.
The Carbon and Oxygen CycleCarbon starts its cycle in the atmosphere as Carbon Dioxide. Plants take in the carbon dioxide and make organic compounds known as glucose. That glucose gets passed on to consumers through the food chain. They then release carbon dioxide back into the atmosphere through the process of cellular respiration.
Human Activities can alter ecosystems!
Population GrowthAs the human population continues to grow, the environment will be negatively impacted by the following.Habitat destructionDeforestationAir Pollution Acid RainWater pollutionGlobal WarmingIntroduced SpeciesReduced BiodiversityOverexploitation
DeforestationThe clearing of forest for agriculture, lumber, and other uses also affects the carbon cycle by eliminating plants that absorb CO2 for photosynthesis.
Alternatives to Clear cuttingDont cut down every single tree!!!!!!Selective Cutting
Greenhouse EffectThey process by which atmospheric gases trap heat. Greenhouses trap heat.
Global WarmingThe overall rise in Earths average temperature. Caused by increasing carbon levels in the atmosphere. What causes increased carbon levels in the atmosphere?DeforestationBurning of Fossil Fuels Effects of Global warmingRising sea levelsLarge effects on weatherLoss of Species
Acid RainPrecipitation that carries acid to the Earths surface. Smokestacks and automobile exhaust pipes release nitrogen and sulfur compounds into the atmosphere. They then combine with water and form acid rain. Can lower pH of soil and aquatic ecosystems causing species to become extinct. Acid Rain
Water and Air PollutionBurning Fossil Fuels Releases chemicals into the atmosphere. Fertilizers end up in water supplies.
Introduced SpeciesStarlings and house sparrows are introduced species from Europe. They competed with the bluebird population drastically reducing its population.
SnakeheadsSnakeheads are very aggressive and are outcompeting all native fish populations. Examples include Bass, Pickerel,
OverexploitationThe practice of overhunting. Elephants were hunted for their tusks
What can Humans do to reduce our negative impact on the environment?
Selective cuttingMake our homes more energy efficientUse cars get higher gas mileageTougher regulations