Ecology Interactions Between Organisms and their Environments. Mr. Broderick NC SCOS Goal 5. The organization of our world!. The earth is a biosphere. Ecosystems are the living and nonliving things in an area. Populations are a group of one type of organism living in an area. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Interactions Between Organisms and their Environments
EcologyInteractions Between Organisms and their EnvironmentsMr. BroderickNC SCOS Goal 5The organization of our world!
The earth is a biosphereEcosystems are the living and nonliving things in an areaPopulations are a group of one type of organism living in an area2Hierarchy of BiologyMoleculesOrganellesCellsTissuesOrgansOrgan systemsOrganismsPopulationsCommunitiesEcosystemsThis list, with a few deletions, is on my back wall in big words. It serves as a reminder of the organization, and it also covers test items with the answers like organism, population, community, ecosystem as levels in ecology! I refer to it as we move up and down the list during our studies.3What is ecology?Ecology: The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
Example problems that ecology handles: How do humans affect the atmosphere and contribute to global warming? How does the population of wolves in an area affect the population of rabbits?Do clownfish (Nemo!) and anemone benefit each other?
Sell it to them!4Why does ecology matter?Ecology: The study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
Scenario: Imagine that there is an insect that lives on peanut plants growing on farms in Northampton County. Is there a way that we can limit insect damage to the peanut crops in order to decrease the price of peanuts at the store by 20 cents per pound?
Make it relevant to money in their pockets! Generate other examples using local resources!5EcosystemsEcosystem: An area containing an interaction of living and non-living factors in an area/region
Example ecosystems: North Carolina forests (pine forests)Coastal Plains of NCOuter banks coastal water ecosystemLake Gaston ecosystem
Do you see living and non-living things in this ecosystem?7What is in an Ecosystem?Abiotic Factors: The non-living parts of an ecosystemRocks, soil, temperature, gases in the air, lightBiotic Factors: The living parts of an ecosystemPlants, animals, bacteria, fungusProducers: use light to make their own energyConsumers: eat other organisms to obtain energyDecomposers: break down dead organisms for energy
8BioticHumansBacteriaFungusPlantsInsectsAmphibiansReptilesMammalsBirdsAbioticWaterSoilWind or AirGases oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogenTemperatureSunlightpHAcid or base9Abiotic or Biotic?
Biotic (plant)Abiotic (rainwater)10Abiotic or Biotic?The air temperature is 45 degrees F = The soil is made of rocks and minerals =A bird lays eggs =Bacteria break down dead organisms = The pH or the water is 2 (acidic) =abioticabioticabioticbioticbiotic11Abiotic or Biotic?
BioticBioticBioticAbiotic12Which of the following is a relationship between abiotic and biotic factors?A) The rain on an open field washes away soilB) A hawk hunts a mouse and swoops down into the forest for the killC) A lake has very acidic water which causes many fish populations to dieD) A deer grazes in a field of grasses
AbioticBiotic13A scientist performs an experiment to see if acids have an effect on the health of a particular type of plant. Three sets of plants were treated with acidic solutions of known pH while the control set was treated with a solution of neutral pH 7.
What is the best conclusion for this experiment?
Acid has no effect on the health of this type of plantHigh acidity is helpful to this type of plantLow acidity is harmful to this type of plantHigh acidity is harmful to this type of plant14
Energy Transfer in an EcosystemFood ChainsA food chain shows the flow of energy between the organisms in an environment
Food ChainsNotice that the arrow points from the organism being eaten to the organism that eats it.Like the burger you eat goes into youPlants Cow (burger) Human
What do the arrows in the food chain below indicate?SunlightEnergy flowHeat transferToxins
What is energy?The energy that is transferred in an ecosystem is stored in carbon-compounds, or organic compounds.Organic compounds: molecules that contain a carbon atomCarbohydrates: glucose, starch, cellulose (mostly plants)Proteins: the muscles of animals (steak!)Fats: in muscle of animal tissues (fatty steak!)
Food WebsWhen we put many food chains together in one ecosystem, it is called a food webFood webs show the direction that energy flows in an ecosystem.
Energy Moves in a Food Web
Plants make glucose from lightSome animals get glucose from plantsOther animals get energy from the fat and protein in other animalsParts of a Food WebProducers: organisms that use light to store energy in organic compounds. (examples: plants, algae, phytoplankton)
Consumers: organisms that eat other organisms to get organic compounds that they use for energy (examples: humans, cows, insects, birds)
3 consumers: organisms that eat 2 consumers for energy2 consumers: organisms that eat 1 consumers for energy1 consumers: eat producers to obtain energy compounds
Parts of a Food WebWhere are the producers in the food web below?
Parts of a Food WebWhere are the consumers in the food web below?
ProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerWhich of the following organisms is a primary consumer in the ecosystem shown?HawkRabbitMountain lionFrog
Population Impacts in a Food WebIf the population of organisms at any level of the food web changes, it will affect the population at other levelsIf the population of producers decreases, then the population of primary consumers will decrease if they dont have enough food.If the population of primary consumers decreases, then-The producers will increase because there are less consumers eating them-The secondary consumers will decrease because there is less food for them
Which organism would be most affected if the cricket population decreased?SnakeDeerFrogHawk
Energy PyramidsEnergy Pyramids show the amount of energy at each level of a food webTrophic Level: the total amount of energy in all organisms at one level in the food web.
Energy PyramidsMore energy at the bottom, decreases as the pyramid moves up the food web
More EnergyLess Energy30Energy Pyramid Labels
ProducersTertiary ConsumersPrimary ConsumersSecondary Consumers31Energy Transfer in Energy PyramidsEach trophic level of the energy pyramid supplies energy to the level above it.Each transfer loses 90% of the energyOnly 10% of the energy at a level is passed to the next level up!
100%10%1%0.1%Energy Transfer (calories)
1,000 calories1 calorie100 calories10 calories33Energy Transfer in Energy PyramidsWe can say that the energy transfer from level to level is inefficient(not a lot of the energy at each level makes it up)This means that there cant be many levels ina food web or pyramidThe amount of energy decreases, and it cannot typically support organisms at higher levels than tertiary consumer
Energy Transfer and FlowHow does energy enter the food web?
Better question where does the weight of a producer come from?How does this... become this?
Carbon DioxideWaterGlucoseOxygenSunlightPhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis: a toxin process that occurs in producers and converts light, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (sugar) and oxygen
Light CO2 H2OGlucoseO2Starch Fat(nuts)
How do consumers get energy?Digestion of organic moleculesConsumers eat other organisms to obtain organic molecules, which are forms of stored energy.Energy is stored in the bonds of the molecules.
The Carbon CycleCarbon CycleCarbon is found throughout the environmentCarbon is found in the atmosphere and in water as carbon dioxide (CO2)Carbon is found in organisms as organic molecules, like glucose (sugars) and fatsCarbon is found buried in the ground as fossil fuels
Greenhouse Effect and Global WarmingGreenhouse EffectHeat is trapped near the Earths surface because once light gets in, it warms the surface but cannot escape out of the atmosphere.It is trapped by the gases in the atmosphere, like CO2
Excess CO2 Enhanced Greenhouse Effect Global WarmingGLOBAL WARMING
The Earth has been warming on average.
Could be due to increased CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, which enhances the greenhouse effect and traps extra heat.
Stress moving average as evidence of global warming, which may be caused by an enhanced greenhouse effect, which is a result of excess CO2! Its a cause -> effect chain53