Ecology Unit. Definition of Ecology Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments

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Text of Ecology Unit. Definition of Ecology Ecology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms...

  • Ecology Unit

  • Definition of EcologyEcology- the scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environments.

  • Fundamental of Ecology

    Biotic factors- all living organisms in an environment.

    Abiotic factors- nonliving parts of the environment (i.e. temperature, soil, light, water, soil composition)

  • Organism- An individual exhibiting all of the characteristics of life.Species- organisms that interbreed and compete with each other for resources (ex. food, mates, shelter)Organization

  • Population-a group of organisms living in the same place at the same timeOrganization

  • Community- several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment. Organization

  • Ecosystem- a community and the abiotic factors with which they interact (ex. marine, terrestrial)Organization

  • Niche - the role a species plays in a community (job)

    Habitat- the place in which an organism lives out its life (address)Organization

  • Biosphere- life supporting portions of Earth. They can be big (ocean) or small (fish tank).Biome- Geographic areas of Earth with like characteristics.Ex.Tundra Rain ForestOrganization

  • Autotrophic- Producers that trap energy.

    Photosynthesis- Traps energy form sunlight

    Chemosynthesis- Traps energy from chemical reactions.Black smokers Hydrogen SulfideNutrition & Energy Flow

  • Heterotrophic- Consumers that consume other organisms for energy

    Respiration- the release of energy from a energy source.

    Herbivores Eats plantsCarnivores Eats meatOmnivores Eats plants and meatDecomposers Breakdown dead and decaying organisms so the can be absorbedScavenger Eats dead organismsNutrition & Energy Flow

  • Nutrition & Energy FlowPhotosynthesis / Respiration Equation:6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Food chain- simple model that shows how matter and energy move through an ecosystemNutrition & Energy Flow

  • Food web- shows all possible feeding relationships in a community at each trophic levelNutrition & Energy Flow

  • Ecological Food Pyramid- shows the transfer of energy and biomass between trophic levels. Only 10% transferred!!!100%10%1%.1%Nutrition & Energy Flow

  • Trophic level- link in a food chain or web.represent a feeding step in the transfer of energy and matter in an ecosystem.

    Biomass- the amount of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a habitat.Nutrition & Energy Flow

  • Matter- Anything that takes up space Everything.

    Energy- the ability to do work.Nutrition & Energy Flow

  • Cycling maintains homeostasis (balance) in the environment.4 cycles to investigate:1. Water cycle2. Carbon cycle3. Nitrogen cycle4. Phosphorus cycleNutrition & Energy Flow

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Water cycle-Key processesEvaporation, condensation, precipitationOther processesTranspirationBiogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Carbon cycle-Key processesPhotosynthesis and respiration

    Other processesCombustion of fuelsBiogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Nitrogen cycle- Key processesNitrogen fixation, plants growing, animals growing, decomposing, and denitrification.Other processesPlant and animal waste and the rock cycle.Nitrogen fixation- convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into ammonium (NH4+) which can be used to make organic compounds like amino acids. N2 NH4+ Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Phosphorus cycle-Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Phosphorus cycle

    Key processesPlant growth, animals eating, decomposing

    Other processesPlant and animal waste and the rock cycle.Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

    Greenhouse Gas NameWhere they come from?Abundance in atmosphereCycle in which they moveHeat trapping capacityWater Vapor (H2O)Naturally occurring form evaporation3 pph Varies w/ temperature Water Cycle90% of Earth's natural greenhouseCarbon dioxide (CO2)Respiration / Burning Fuels370 ppmCarbon Cycle60% enhancement of greenhouse effectNitrous Oxide(N2O)Decomposing Bacteria / Automobile exhaust314 ppbNitrogen Cycle4 -6% enhancement of greenhouse effectOzone (O3)Natural occurring in upper atmosphere 34 ppbOxygen CycleMethane (CH4)Decomposing Bacteria / Livestock1750 ppbCarbon Cycle20% enhancement of greenhouse effectFluorocarbons (CFC)Refrigerants 533 pptCarbon Cycle12% enhancement of greenhouse effect

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • Biogeochemical Cycles

  • PopulationECOSYSTEM LEVEL Eucalyptus forestCOMMUNITY LEVEL All organisms in eucalyptus forestPOPULATION LEVEL Group of flying foxesORGANISM LEVEL Flying foxORGAN SYSTEM LEVEL Nervous systemORGAN LEVEL BrainBrainSpinal cordNerveTISSUE LEVEL Nervous tissueCELLULAR LEVEL Nerve cellMOLECULAR LEVEL Molecule of DNAFigure 1.1Population Growth

  • Kings chess gameTypes of growthJ-Curve- an graph line shape that shows exponential growth.Exponential growth- growth that occurs when some quantity regularly increases by a fixed percentagePopulation Growth

  • Real examples of exponential growth

    Invasive species, which often become pest species, also show this pattern. When a new species is introduced accidentally or deliberately into a new environment it has no natural predators or diseases to keep it under control.Zebra MusselsPopulation Growth

  • Real examples of exponential growth European starling (Sturnus vulgaris), a bird, was introduced into the United States. Between 1890 and 1891, 160 of these birds were released in Central Park New York. By 1942 they had spread as far as California. An estimate population of between 140 and 200 million starlings now exist in North America, making it one of the commonest species of bird on Earth.European StarlingPopulation Growth

  • Kings chess gameTypes of growthS-Curve- an graph line shape that shows growth until a limit is reached.Population GrowthCarrying CapacityExponential growth phaseLag time

  • The history of human population growthFigure 35.8APopulation Growth

  • The age structure of a population is the proportion of individuals in different age-groupsFigure 35.9BRAPID GROWTHKenyaMaleFemalePercent of populationPercent of populationPercent of populationSLOW GROWTHUnited StatesMaleFemaleZERO GROWTH/DECREASEItalyMaleFemaleAges 45+Ages 1544Under 15Under 15Ages 45+Ages 1544Also reveals social conditions, status of womenPopulation Growth

  • What next? Figure 35.8CPopulation Growth

  • U.S.ChinaIndiaRussiaJapanU.S.ChinaIndiaRussiaJapanPer capita CO2 emissions(metric tons of carbon)Total CO2 emissions(billion metric tons of carbon)012345600.511.55.480.752.652.510.291.490.910.390.320.28Population Growth

  • Kings chess gameMeasuring populationCensus- count all the individuals in a populationSamplingCatch & Release- practice intended as a technique of conservation then counting organisms.Organisms in an area- counting the number of organisms in a small area and multiplying that count for to find a larger area.

    Population Growth

  • Patterns in population- dispersion patterns of individuals in their habitat.Clumped Organisms found in groupsUniform- Organisms found evenly distributedRandom- Organisms without a patternPopulation Growth

  • Effects population growthLimiting factor- any material an organism needs to survive but is in short supplyDensity dependent- affect populations more as the population size and density increases Population Growth

  • Competition- Competitive exclusion principle -No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same timeInvasive species- Interspecific competition occurs between two species for similar resources

    Reproductive strategies- Intraspecific competition occurs within a species for similar resourcesPopulation Growth

  • Carrying capacity- The largest # of individuals an environment can support indefinitelyFood, water, & shelter- availability of resources carrying capacity depends on .Population Growth

  • Natural balance- Births approximately equal deaths

    Disease- Disease spred eaisier in dense populations (eg. Flu, HIV, ect.)

    Dependence- population changes the occur because of other populations change. (Eg. Food web)

    Population Growth

  • Effects population growthDensity Independent- Factors which affect all populations, regardless of sizeRanges of tolerance- a populations optimal range of abitoic factors populations StormsDroughtPollution Population Growth

  • RelationshipsPredator & Prey- prime movers of energy through food chains.Producer & Consumer- prime movers of energy through food chains.

  • RelationshipsSymbiosis- two species living in a close relationship togetherMutualism- beneficial to both species. The species have a interdependence

    Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp

  • RelationshipsMutualism- beneficial to both species

    Ex. Lichen (fungi & algae)

  • RelationshipsCommensalism- one species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped

    Ex. orchids on a treeEpiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant.

  • Parasitism- one species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host)

    Ex. lampreys, leeches, fleas,ticks,tapewormRelationships

  • = 1 species

    Type of relationshipSpecies harmedSpecies benef

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