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  • Center for Responsible Travel (CREST) Washington, DC ■ 1333 H St., NW ■ Suite 300 East Tower ■ Washington, DC 20005 ■ Tel: 202-347-9203 Stanford University ■ 450 Serra Mall, Building 50, Room 51D ■ Stanford, CA 94305 ■ Tel: 650-723-0894

    Email: info@responsibletravel.org

    www.responsibletravel.org ■ www.travelersphilanthropy.org

    Economic Impact of Bear Viewing and Bear Hunting in

    The Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia

    Produced by Center for Responsible Travel (CREST)

    with Pacific Analysis Inc. Small Planet Consulting

    January 2014

    mailto:info@responsibletravel.org http://www.responsibletravel.org/ http://www.travelersphilanthropy.org/

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    Copyright © 2014 Center for Responsible Travel (CREST)

    Economic Impact of Bear Viewing and Bear Hunting in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia was produced by the Center for Responsible Travel (CREST), a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC and at Stanford University, in order to share knowledge and deepen understanding of critical issues in the field of tourism.

    When quoting or referencing material contained in this publication, please cite as follows:

    Center for Responsible Travel, Economic Impact of Bear Viewing and Bear Hunting in the Great Bear Rainforest of British Columbia, Washington, DC: Center for Responsible Travel, 2014, plus page numbers.

    Photo credits: Spirit or Kermode bear, courtesy of Mike Robbins, The Tourism Company Grizzly bear, Douglas Brown (license: creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode) Black bear, courtesy of Mike Robbins, The Tourism Company Hunters and bear, Cowgirl Jules (license: creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/legalcode)

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    Purpose of Study and Acknowledgements The Center for Responsible Travel (CREST), a research institute headquartered in Washington, D.C. and affiliated with Stanford University, undertook this study to assess the economic impact of bear hunting and viewing tourism in the Central and North Coast of British Columbia, an area designated as the Great Bear Rainforest. The study is intended to fill a void in the literature concerning the value of these two types of wildlife recreation in this specific region. Studies and surveys done over the past three decades have varied somewhat in their methodologies and none, to date, compared bear hunting and viewing for both grizzly and black bears within this specific geographical region. In addition, different economic figures are cited in the media and popular publications, all of which vary widely depending on author and intended audience. The research is based on Stanford University’s academic standards and the protocols of the Institutional Review Board (IRB). For the economic analysis, the study uses the same methodology that Statistics Canada uses to determine the GDP estimates of other industry sectors and therefore the economic estimates are comparable to other Statistics Canada GDP measures. All financial figures are in Canadian dollars. The study involved a site visit and interviews, surveys of bear-viewing companies and guide outfitters, review of past studies and other literature, and collection and analysis of government regulations, practices, and statistics. Those surveyed and many of the interviews were conducted anonymously and therefore individual names, with a few exceptions, are not included. The project was directed by CREST Co-Director Martha Honey, Ph.D., in collaboration with two BC-based experts, statistical analyst Jim Johnson, Managing Principal, Pacific Analytics, Inc. and tourism professional Judy Karwacki, Managing Director, Small Planet Consulting. Claire Menke, CREST Program Associate at Stanford University, oversaw the IRB approval, initial research, and survey analysis. The CREST research and support team in Washington, DC and at Stanford included Kelsey Wiseman, Hayley Pallan, Kehan DeSousa, Austin Cruz, Gwendolyn Burke, Jeanette Lim, Roger Robinson, Ainhoa Aldalur, Alejandra Borja, Samantha Hogenson, and David Krantz. Martha Honey and Jim Johnson wrote the final report. William H. Durham, Ph.D., CREST Co-Director at Stanford University reviewed the research methodology and the final report. The study also built upon the research and approach in an April 2013 study conducted by Rosie Child of Victoria University which examined the economic value of grizzly bear viewing and hunting in virtually the same region. The Center for Responsible Travel would like to thank the following for their assistance:

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    • Rosie Child of the Hakai-Raincoast Applied Conservation Science Lab at the University of

    Victoria whose April 2013 study examined the economic value of grizzly bear viewing and hunting in virtually the same area.

    • Douglas Neasloss, Councillor, Kitassoo/Xaixais Band Council and members of the Coastal First Nations’ Bear Working Group who provided information, insights, and interviews.

    • The technical team (Ian Hatter, Manager; Mike Wolowicz and Carol Wrenshall) with the Fish, Wildlife and Habitat Management Branch of the Ministry of Forests, Lands, and Natural Resource Operations (MFLNRO), Victoria, British Columbia who provided statistics and maps and explained BC government policies.

    • The bear-viewing companies and guide outfitters who participated in the surveys. • The many BC organizations and individuals who provided information and analysis. • Mike Robbins, Chair of the CREST Board and Catherine Ardagh, former CREST Program

    Associate who initially proposed CREST to undertake this study.

    Finally, we are grateful to Tides Canada and The Nature Conservancy USA for providing financial support for this project. While this study could not have done without the help of all these people and institutions, the Center for Responsible Travel is solely responsible for its content.

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    Map 1.1: Great Bear Rainforest (GBF)

    Source: http://alaskaoutdoornews.net/riversinletresort.com/Great-Bear-Rainforest-Park.htm

    http://alaskaoutdoornews.net/riversinletresort.com/Great-Bear-Rainforest-Park.htm

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    Acronyms AtBC – Aboriginal Tourism BC

    AAH - Annual Allowable Harvests

    BC – British Columbia

    BEAB - Black bear

    BEAG - Grizzly bear

    BCWF – BC Wildlife Federation

    BMTA - Biodiversity, Mining, and Tourism Area CBVA-Commercial Bear-viewing Association CI – Compulsory Inspection

    CORE - Conservation Outdoor Recreation Education CREST – Center for Responsible Travel

    CRH – Canadian Non-Resident of BC Hunter

    EBM - Ecosystem-Based Management

    EU – European Union

    FTE – Full time equivalent for employment

    GBF – Great Bear Rainforest

    GBPU - Grizzly Bear Population Units

    GDP – Gross domestic product or Added Value. The contribution to the economy or the sum of labor income, interest payments, depreciation, and profits.

    GOA – Guide Outfitters Association GOABC – Guide Outfitters Association of BC GST – Goods and Services Tax HST - Harmonized Sales Tax HCTF - Habitat Conservation Trust Fund IRB – Institutional Review Board LEH - Limited Entry Hunting MFLNRO - Minister of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations MU – Management Units NCC – Nature Conservancy of Canada NDP – New Democratic Party NRH - Non-Resident of Canada Hunter PST – Provincial Sales Tax RH – BC Resident Hunter (qualified by place of residence and demonstrated completion of hunter safety training) SLI – Supplementary Labor Income

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    Table of Contents Purpose of Study and Acknowledgements ..................................................................................... 3 Acronyms ........................................................................................................................................ 6 Executive Summary and Key Findings......................................................................................... 11 Chapter 1: Bear Viewing .............................................................................................................. 16

    The Great Bear Rainforest: An Overview ................................................................................ 16

    • GBRF Description .......................................................................................................... 16 • Environmental Protection History .................................................................................. 17 • First Nations Trophy Hunting Ban for Bears ................................................................. 18 • Arguments For and Against Bear Hunting ..................................................................... 19 • Previous Economic Studies ............................................................................................ 21 • The CREST Study .......................................................................................................... 22

    Analysis of Bear-Viewing Tourism in the Great Bear Rainforest Study Area ......................... 25 • Analysis of Bear-Viewing Companies ........................................................................... 26 • Profile of Companies .............................................................................................