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  • ED 320 807

    AUTHOR TITLE

    INSTITUTION REPORT NO PUB DATE NOTE AVAILABLE FROM

    PUB TYPE

    EDRS PRICE DESCRIPTORS

    DOCUMENT RESUME

    SO 020 897

    Roberts, Nigel, Ed.

    Agricultural Extension in Africa. A World Bank Symposium.

    World Bank, Washington, D. C. ISBN-0-8213-1195-6 89

    106p.

    World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433.

    Speeches/Conference Papers (150) -- Reports - Descriptive (141)

    MF01 Plus Postage. PC Not Available from EDRS. *Developing Nations; *Economic Development; Higher Education; Modernization; *Research and Development; Research Projects; *Rural Development; *Rural Extension

    IDENTIFIERS *Africa (Sub Sahara)

    ABSTRACT

    The contributors to this document compare the main approaches to agricultural extension in sub-Saharan Africa; the cost-effectiveness in view of precarious national budgets; the weaknesses of the system for generating technology; the difficulties in forging productive partnerships between .esearchers, extensionists and farmers; the ineffective public services and fragile institutional networks; and the degree to which farmers are allowed to participate in extension management. The articles include: (1) "Agricultural Extension and Its Linkage with Agricultural Research" (D. Pickering); (2) "The Commodity-Driven Approach of the Cotton Companies" (G. Mandrvi); (3) "The Extension System of British-American Tobacco (Kenya) Limited" (F. N. Kimani); (4) "The World Bank and the Training and Visit System in East Africa" (N. Roberts); (5) "A Few Questions on the Training and Visit Method" (D. Gentil); (6) "The Design of T&V Extension Programs for Small Farmers in Ethiopia" (A. Dejeno); (7) "Proposals for a New Approach to Extension Services in Africa" (G. Belloncle); (8) "Village Associations and Agricultural Extension in the Republic of Mali" (B. Sada Sy; M. Yero Bah); (9) "On-Farm Research with a Farming Systems Perspective" (M. Collison); (10) "The Farming Systems Approach and Links between Research and Extension" (N. Okigbo); (11) "The Farming Systems Approach in Senegal" (J. Faye); (12) "Extension under East African Field Conditions" (J. R. Morris); (13) "Public Investment in Africa's Extension Services" (J. Howell); and (14) "New Developments in Agricultural Extension" (M. Baxter). A reference list of 95 items is appended. (NL)

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  • SCOPE OF INTEREST NOTICE

    The ERIC Facility has assigned this document for processing to:

    In our Judgment, this document is also of interest to the Clear- inghouses noted to the right. Indexing should ref feat their special points of view.

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Once of Educational Research and Improvement

    EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)

    72;h Is document has been reproduced as received from the person Or organization originating it. Minor changes have been made to improve reproduction Quality.

    Points of view or opinions stated in this docu- ment do not necessarily represent official OERI position or policy.

    "PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS MATERIAL IN MICROFICHE ONLY HAS BEEN GRANTED BY

    O

    edited by Nigel Roberts

    klitt

    A World Bank Symposium

    BEST COPY AVAILABLE- 2

    TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC)."

  • Agricultural Extension in Africa

    A World Bank Symposium

    3

  • Agricultural Extension in Africa

    edited by Nigel Roberts

    The World Bank Washington, D.C.

    4

  • © 1989 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/mE WORLD BANK

    1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

    All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America First printing April 1989

    The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this study are entirely those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, to its affiliated organizations, or to members of its Board of Executive Directors or the countries they represent.

    The drawing on the cover and title pages is by Mylene Falloux.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Agricultural extension in Africa.

    (A World Bank symposium) Papers which had their genesis in two workshops held

    June 1984 at Eldoret, Kenya and the other held February 1985 at Yamoussoukro, C8te d'Ivoire.

    Bibliography: p. 1. Agricultural extension workAfricaCongresses.

    I. Roberts, Nigel, 1951 . II. Series. S544.5.A4A37 1989 630'.7'1506 89-5579 ISBN 0-8213-1195-6

  • Contents

    Preface

    Contributors

    Abbreviations

    Introduction, Nigel Roberts and Francois Falloux

    1 Agricultural Extension and Its Linkage with Agricultural Research, Donald Pickering

    Extension Approaches 4 Some Pointers 5

    COMMODITY-BASED EXTENSION

    3

    2 The Commodity-Driven Approach of the Cotton Companies, Guy Mandavi 7

    Intensive Cultivation 7 The Evolution of Extension Systems for Cotton 9 Conclusion 10

    3 The Extension System of British-American Tobacco "{enya) Limited, Francis N. Kimani

    Extension Objectives 13 The Extension Structure 14 Financing of the Tobacco Project 16 Summary 16

    TRAINING AND VISIT EXTENSION

    4 The World Bank and the Training and Visit System in East Africa, Nigel Roberts

    The T&V System and Its Origins 19 The Controversy 20 Unanswered Questions: Participation and Costs 23

    v

    13

    19

  • vi Contents

    5 A Few Questions on the Training and Visit Method, Dominique Gentil 25 The Context 25 The Applicability of the Tiv Method 27 Compatibility between Farmers' Problems, Technical Innovations,

    and Channels of Dissemination 28 Conclusion 28 Notes 29

    6 The Design of T&V Extension Programs for Small Farmers in Ethiopia, Alemneh Dejene

    The Origin and Organization of ARDU 31 The T&V System in Ethiopia 32 A Comparison of To and ARDU Extension 33 Adapting T&V Extension to Ethiopian Conditions 34 Recommendations 35

    COMMUNITY-BASED EXTENSION

    7 Proposals for a New Approach to Extension Services in Africa, Guy Belloncle

    A Critique of Present Approaches 37 A New Approach to Extension Services 40 Scientific Agricultural Training for Young People 42 Ensuring the Participation of Women 43 Conclusions 43

    8 Village Associations and Agricultural Extension in the Republic of Mali, Boubacar Sada Sy and Mamadou Yero Bah CFDT/CMDT Experience 45 Village Associations 48 Conclusion 48

    FARMING SYSTEMS RESEARCH AND EXTENSION

    31

    3?

    45

    9 On-Farm Research with a Farming Systems Perspective, Michael Collinson 51 The Farming Systems Perspective in Technology Development 52 A Link between Research, Extension, and Farmers 53 Operational Linkages for CFRIFSP 54 Country Coverage and the Costs of OFR/nP 56

    10 The Farming Systems Approach and Links between Research and Extension, Bede N. Okigbo 59 Farming Systems Research 60 Upstream and Downstream Components 61 Need for Interdisciplinary Interaction 62 Institutionalization and Popularization of FSR 62 Linkages between FSR and Agricultural Extension 62 UTA Experience with FSR 64 Problems in Adopting the FSR Approach in Africa 66

    11 The Farming Systems Approach in Senegal, Jacques Faye 67 The Senegalese Agricultural Research Institute 68 The Research Program of Basse Casamance 68 Conclusion 71

  • COMMON THEMES

    12 Extension under East African Field Conditions, Jon R. Moris Weak Technical Packages 74 The Bureaucratization of Extension 75 Working Conditions in the Field 77 Reforming African Extension 79 Farming Systems Research 80 The TO System 81 Conclusion 83 Notes 83

    73

    13 Public Investment in Africa's Extension Services, John Howell 85

    Trends in Expenditure 85 Research and Extension 86 Technical Support for Extension and Input Supply 87 Financing Extension 88 Managing Field Staff 89 Conciusion 90

    14 New Developments in Agricultural Extension, Michael Baxter 93 Communications Systems and Technology 94 Privatization and Cost Recovery 95 Group and Individual Approaches 96 Extension-Research Linkages 96 Extension and Women as Farmers 97 Conclusion 97 Notes 98

    References 99

    Contents vii

  • Preface

    In recent years the World Bank has become Josely i identified with the training and visit (T &v) system of ag-

    ricultural extension, which now enjoys a dominant po- sition among the extension methodologies in much of the developing world. Less well known, perhaps, is the fact that the World Bank gives significant support to other extension approaches and values vigorous debate on the relative merits of different systems. This volume and the workshops that gave rise to it are a testament to the Bank's interest in fostering such a debate.

    The fourteen contributions that appear here all focus on agricultural extension in Sub-Saharan Africa. They had their genesis in two workshops in Africa. the first held in June 1984 at Eldoret, Kenya (African Workshop on Extension and Research), and the second in Febru- ary 1985 at Yamoussoukro, Cote d'Ivoire (Agricultural Extension and Its Link with Research in Rural Develop- ment). Some of the chapters were originally presented at the workshops as papers and have subsequently been

    modified, whereas others were written l