Editing concepts & techniques

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  • 1. Editing Concepts & Techniques

2. Continuity editing 3. Editing establishes the structure and content of the production, alongwith the productions overall mood, intensity, and tempo. Continuity editing refers to arranging the sequence of shots tosuggest a progression of events.Continuity editing can be divided into two categories: temporalcontinuity and spatial continuity. Within each category, Continuityediting primarily suggests guiding an audience through a sequence ofevents, and, in the process, showing them what they want to seewhen they want to see it. The techniques therefore causing apassage to be continuous, giving the viewer a concrete physicalnarration to follow, or discontinuous, causing viewer disorientation,pondering, or even subliminal interpretation or reaction, as in themontage style. Overall, by the end, youve told a story or logicallytraced a series of events to their conclusion. 4. 180 Degrees Rule 5. In filmmaking, the 180-degree rule is a basic guideline regarding the on-screen spatial relationship between a character and another character orobject within a scene. An imaginary line called the axis connects thecharacters and by keeping the camera on one side of this axis for everyshot in the scene Another aspect of the 180 degree axis is that the closer to the axis thecamera is, the more the viewers point of view resembles the characters,and thus he feels with the character. This encourages the importantidentification with the characters which viewers should feel.Crossing the 180 degree axis can be very confusing sincethe directions established for the viewer is changed. An example ofthis would be like watching a football game with the runner going tothe right and all of a sudden we cut to him running to the left. Itwould make the viewer wonder if he was running the wrong way ornot. 6. Matching On Action 7. Cutting on action or matching on action refers to filmediting and video editing techniques where the editor cuts fromone shot to another view that matches the first shots action. Cutting on action gives the impression of continuity whenwatching an edited film. By having an event commence in one shot to be further shownof completed in the next, the editor is creating a visual bridgedistracting the audience from noticing the actual cut orunfortunate error of continuity between the two shots. This technique is rather quite popular in todays day and age offilms yet it matters if the director has used this technique to itsfull potential which is seen rarely, except for numerous moviesone film series for example is the Die hard series of films. 8. Shot Reverse Shot 9. Also known as the reverse angle shot, commonly used in close-up dialogue scenes. The camera adopts the eyeline trajectoryof the interlocutor looking at the other person as she or hespeaks, then switches to the other persons position and doesthe same.This is a film technique where one character is shown looking atanother character (often off-screen), and then the othercharacter is shown looking back at the first character. Sincethe characters are shown facing in opposite directions, theviewer assumes that they are looking at each otherShot reverse shot is a feature of the "classical" Hollywood styleof continuity editing. It is an example of an eyeline match. 10. Eyeline Matching 11. A term used to point to the object continuity editing practice ensuring the logic of the look or gaze. In other words, eyeline matching is based on the belief in mainstream cinema that when a character looks into off-screen space the spectator expects to see what he or she is looking at. Thus there will be a cut to show what is being looked at:1. view2. another character3. Eyeline then refers to the trajectory of the looking eye. For example, character A will look off-screen at character B. Cut to character B, who-if she or he is in the same room and engaged in an exchange either of glances or words with character A-will return that look and so certify that character A is indeed in the space from which we first saw her or him look. This "stabilising" is true in the other primary use of the eyeline match which is the shot/reverse angle shot. 12. Graphic Matching 13. Whenever your making a cut it is important to realize whereyour viewers center of focus is on the previous shot. Ifpossible you want the focus of the next shot to be in a similarplace. Alternatively, if you want to cause an uncomfortable feeling toyour audience or jar them on a cut you simply have to makesure that the images dont match graphically.