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Editing Techniques Report

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Jack Reeve - Editing Techniques Report for EN BTEC MEDIA

Text of Editing Techniques Report

James Bond Goldfinger Fight Scene

History of editing: Editing has come a long way since the days of splicing. The basic edit in film comes from when a cut was simply cutting the film physically cut with scissors and then spliced back together. The purpose of editing is to combine shots into sequences to be able to present a narrative. Most media types have a clear narrative but some dont have coherent narratives, thanks to editing though it allows ways to create meaning through them. A good example of this is the Kuleshov Effect who used Ivan Mozzhukhin as the subject of his experiments. Kuleshov found that a subjects appearance can changed depending on what is placed next to it. For example Kuleshov found that Mozzhukhin looked different when associated with a smiling young girl rather than with a coffin. Same face, different emotion this is the key finding from Kuleshovs effect. By placing shots into sequences it is clear that a narrative can be created. This was a really key finding in the evolution of editing.Here you can see Mozzhukhin closely associated with a smiling child with a teddy bear. This would of course be placed in back to back frames in film but these are only stills. If you look at Mozzhukhin in this he looks happier than the example below.

In the early 1900s there was no fixed way of editing for meaning. As you can see from the above examples though the use of combining shots into sequences to create narrative was fast becoming the thing to do. A system gradually developed through Hollywood which would mean that the viewers didnt become confused when watching media text, this would go on to be known as the continuity system. This is basically a set of rules about how shots should be combinedEditing is much different nowadays compared to the days of cutting and splicing. In East Norfolk we use non-linear editing and edit video that has been uploaded from either DV tapes or SD cards. There are three different types of video editing technology in-camera editing, linear editing and non-linear editing. In-camera editing is where you shoot the footage in the order of the final sequence and most people start with this if they have a low budget. This would be a good way of creating narrative without editing software such as Premiere Pro. Linear editing is the most out of date type of editing and involves tape to tape. This was the most predominate type of editing until the 1990s before it was taken over by non-linear editing which is now seen as the norm. Non-linear editing is where you can combine uploaded footage whilst being able to instantly access individual shots and frames without having to trawl through reels of footage. Non-linear editing has been made possible thanks to the progression of technological equipment.Transitions: Cut: A cut is simply slicing the footage so one image ends and the next begins. The term cut came from when film used to literally be cut to separate footage. Cuts are the most common transition used within an edit and doesnt break the suspension within a narrative but instead represent a continuous transition. Cuts can often be used when there is a change in camera angle or in sections of dialogue to employ close ups without disturbing the movement in camera.

As you can see from the above images a cut has been used in my chosen film clip. As you can see in the first image a close up has been used of the button to lower the lift and then in the second image a different camera angle has been used to show the lift going down. This is a good example of a cut as most are used for a change in camera angle or time, this does the former. Dissolve: A dissolve is a gradual transition from one image to another. The dissolve overlaps two shots for the duration of the effect usually at the end of one scene and the beginning of the next. Usually dissolves are used to help indicate that a period of time has passed between two scenes. Dissolves can be used for different time lengths and shorter ones may be used to soften jump cuts when this may startle the viewer.

A good example of the dissolve is shown above in this sequence from The Butterfly. I have shown the first image in the sequence which then dissolves into a new setting and shows that time has passed a perfect example of the dissolve. Fade: A fade is where a shot gradually fades to or from a single colour which is usually black or white. Usually a fade signifies the beginning or end of a scene. Much like the dissolve the fade could also connote a change in time; the amount of time that has passed depends on the speed of the fade. A quick fade to and from black could indicate a time change of a few hours whereas a long fade indicates a much bigger change.

An example of a fade can be found in these pictures above. The full film can be found here. The fade in this example is a long one and stays on the black screen for a while; it signifies a progression in time and is the end of one scene and the start of another. Wipe: This is a transition where one shot replaces another by travelling from one side of the screen to another. George Lucas made this transition famous thank to his work with wipes in his Star Wars films.

Much like the other transitions the wipe transition can be used to show the passing of time, especially the clock wipe although its not commonly used due to some viewers finding such transitions tacky.Visual Analysis from my extract:In this section of this assignment I will be looking at different techniques used in my media extract which is where James Bond fights OddJob in Goldfinger. Continuity:This is a system that has been developed to help the audience understand the relationships of shots and avoids confusion when watching. This system consists of the following: Establishing Shots:Usually an establishing shot is the first shot in a scene designed to allow the audience to see where the scene is taking place. The best suited camera shot for this is a long shot or an extra-long shot.

As you can see above this shot is taken from 0.37 and is an establishing shot so viewers know where the following fight scene is about to place. This is important as without it viewers may get confused as to where scenes are happening, if the start of the scene was to go straight into a close up viewers would feel disorientated and it would go against the continuity system.180 Degree RuleIn media, film makers use an imaginary line which you cannot cross and this is called the 180 degree rule. If you cross this line it creates confusion and distortion for the viewer. Crossing the line basically means that you shoot from different sides in consecutive shots which create distortion. You rarely see any continuity errors in media but one example is the Mikado Advert which breaks the 180 degree rule. Here you can see that the man in the cream tank top is approaching from the right hand side.

As you can see here though the 180 degree rule has been broken and the man in the cream tank top is now coming from the left. This means that the creators have broken the 180 degree rule and evidently created distortion.

In Goldfinger they do not make such a mistake though and instead follows the rule so the viewer is not confused.

This clip can be found at 2.37 and is the perfect example of the 180 rule executed properly. Due to the camera being placed on the same side of the imaginary line for both shots there is no confusion for the viewer. Match Cut On ActionThis is another hugely important piece of the continuity rules and helps viewers over the edit smoothly. The way this rule works is an action starts in one scene and then ends in another which creates a smooth transition. It basically creates a visual bridge that helps distract the viewer from the cut in the film.

This clip can be found at 2.06 and it sees Oddjob throw his hat in the first shot and then his hat hit the electricity cables in the second shot. The match cut on action provides a smooth transition and creates that visual bridge that you need. Shot-reverse-shotDue to Oddjob not speaking throughout the James Bond films the chance of a conversation in the scenes he is in is pretty slim. That doesnt mean there arent any shot-reverse-shots though. I used the same example in the 180 degree rule but the shot-reverse-shot rule also applies in this same shot. By using this rule correctly it means that you dont have to have both people in the frame and instead film one character talking to the other in one way and then the other character in the opposite direction.

As you can see above the shots are just reversed which still complies to the continuity rules but makes it much easier to capture conversations or where two characters are interacting. Motivated Editing Eye line match cutsMotivated editing is where shots are carefully chosen to push a story along and make the audience believe what they are seeing. For example if a character is walking around it usually cuts to their viewpoint so you get a feel of the character. Normally the latter shot is a POV although this isnt always the case. As the character gets closer the connection with the subject also becomes closer.

In the above example we see Bond approach a security guard that has been chucked off the top level by OddJob. Bond first of all identifies the guard and then you can see him look inquisitively towards the guard. The next shot is then a POV of the guard which then zooms to the guards pocket where a key is visible. This is a great example of a motivated edit- in this case an eye line match. The audience gets to feel like Bond as they can see in his viewpoint. Identification with the main protagonist or other characters: Screen Time: To be able to connect to the protagonist and realise that they are a main character they need to be on screen for most of the fi

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