Effect of Nano Clay mechanical behaviour on nano clay

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    27-Dec-2015

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Its all about nano clay & its applications

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<p>Proposed WorkTitle: Effect of Nanoclay on Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposites1. IntroductionThere is an increased interest in polymer nanocomposites using Nanoclay such as Montmorillonite due to its high cation exchange capacity [1-2], large specific surface area, swelling capacity, high platelet aspect ratio, ease of surface modification and have been successfully used to improve the mechanical, thermal, barrier and fire retardant properties [3-6]. These are considered for applications in a wide variety of areas, such as aerospace, marine, electronics, sports goods, and automotive industries [8-10]. However, nanocomposites do not always offer improved material properties over the conventional composites. In fact, poorly dispersed nanocomposites result in degraded mechanical properties [11-12].In recent years, use of organoclays as precursors to nanocomposite formation has been extended to various polymer systems including epoxy, vinylester, polyurethanes, polyimides and polyesters. Among these vinylester based nanocomposites have significant importance due to their wide range of applications owing to superior mechanical properties.It also brings difficulties in dispersing the nanoparticles due to their strong interactions among themselves. Due to these interlayer interactions, it is extremely difficult to disperse nanoparticles uniformly, especially at higher particle loadings [13-15]. The organophilic clays are not compatible with hydrophobic organic polymers as the spacing between the clay sheets is extremely narrow and hence diffusion of polymer chains in the clay galleries is not likely. This often leads to aggregation of clay particles, and the aggregated clay sheets act as stress-concentration sites in the polymer matrix [16-17]. Melt intercalation is a simpler and more economical technique than in-situ polymerization. Mixture of polymer and nanoclay was heated above its glass transition temperature or melt temperature as a result of which the polymer is penetrated in between the layered silicates. Ultrasonication for dispersion of nanofillers in polymeric resins is widely reported. High shear forces during the dispersion exfoliate the nanoclay by breaking the agglomerates. Extruders and three-roll mill or ball mill are designed to achieve exfoliation of nanoclay through high shear forces by controlling speed and temperature. Among the existing techniques, twin-screw extrusion may provide some advantages over others due to its effective dispersion in twin screw extrusion. Moreover, twin screw extrusion has to be performed within an appropriate and limited window (temperature, shear, etc.). Under this circumstance, it becomes important to study property changes in nanocomposites that result from partial exfoliation and how different mixing combinations lead to varying degrees of exfoliation.</p> <p>2. Project ObjectivesThe objective of the research was to examine the effect of nanoclay on the mechanical properties of vinylester glass. The specific objectives of the project were: To prepare and optimize the mixing parameters of organo modified Montmorillonite in polymeric resins using ultrasonication and twin screw extruder (Vinylester). To prepare glass fibre reinforced nanoclay polymer composite laminates by hand layup technique. To evaluate the mechanical properties of organo modified nanoclay filled polymer GFRP composite.</p> <p>3. Project MethodologyThe project methodology involved following steps: Dispersion of 0 to 5wt% nanoclay into vinylester resin by ultrasonication followed by twin screw extrusion. Fabrication of nanoclay / vinylester / glass nanocomposites of 250 mm X 250 mm X 3 mm by wet hand lay-up technique. Characterization of nanoclay/vinylester/glass specimens for tensile strength, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength. Characterization of the ILSS Characterization of the Flexural Strength and tensile,</p> <p>Nanoclay / vinylester laminate specimens (250 X 250 X 3) mm3</p> <p>Fabrication of nanoclay / vinylester / glass nanocomposites by Hand lay-up technique</p> <p>Dispersion of nanoclay in vinylester (ultrasonication and twin screw extrusion)</p> <p> Figure 1 Flow chart for Project Methodology</p> <p>References1. K. Aswini, Mishra, Shaik Allauddin, Ramanuj Narayan, M. Tejraj, Aminabhavi, K.V.S.N. Raju. Ceram. Inter. 38, 2012, pp. 929934 2. K. R.Vishnu Mahesh, H. N. Narasimha Murthy, B. E. Kumarswamy, N. Raghavendra, R. Sridhar, M. Krishna, Niranjan Pattar, Ratna Pal and B. S. Sherigara., Front. Chem. China. 6, 2011, pp. 153158 3. Tjong SC et.al. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites. Materials Science and Engineering. 2006, 53:73-1974. Wang L, Wang K, Chen L, Zhang Y, He C. Preparation, Morphology and Thermal/Mechanical Properties of Epoxy/Nanoclay Composite. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2006, 37, pp.1890-18965. Subramaniyan AK, Sun CT. Toughening Polymeric Composites Using Nanoclay: Crack tip Scale Effects on Fracture Toughness. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 2007, 38, pp. 34-436. Kim JK, Hu CG, Woo RSC, Sham RL. Moisture Barrier Characteristics of Organoclay-Epoxy Nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 2005 65, pp. 805-8137. Xu B, Zheng Q, Song Y, Shangguan Y. Calculating Barrier Properties of Polymer/Clay Nanocomposites: Effects of Clay Layers. Polymer, 2006 , 47 pp. 2904-29108. Zhongfu Zhao, Jihua Gou, Stefano Bietto, Christopher Ibeh, David Hui. Fire retardancy of clay/carbon nanofiber hybrid sheet in fiber reinforced polymer composites. Composites Science and Technology. 2009, 69, pp. 208120879. Schmidt D, Shah D, Giannelis EP. New Advances in Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science. 2002, 6, pp. 205-21210. Ray SS, Okamoto M. Polymer/layered Silicate Nanocomposite: A Review from Preparation to Processing. Prog. Polymer Sci. 2003,28, pp. 1539-164111. Bhat G, Hegde1 RR, Kamath MG, Deshpande B. MMT Reinforced Fibers and Nonwovens. Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics 2008, 3(3), pp. 223412. Jo B, Park S, Kim D. Mechanical properties of nano-MMT reinforced polymer composite and polymer concrete. Construct. Building Mater 2008, 22, pp. 14-2013. Diparay, Suparna Sengupta, Sengupta SP. Preparation and properties of vinylester resin/clay Nanocomposites. Macromol. Mater. Eng 2006, 291, pp. 1513-152014. Uddin M F, Sun CT Effect of Nanoparticle Dispersion on Mechanical Behavior of Polymer Nanocomposites. 50th Materials Conference, Organized by American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 4-7 May, Palm Springs, California, AIAA 2009, 2009-233315. In-Yup Jeon, Jong-Beom Baek Nanocomposites Derived from Polymers and Inorganic Nanoparticles. Materials 2010, 3, pp. 3654-3674.16. Lin Jie ZHI, Bing HAN, Tong ZHAO, Yun Zhao YU, Hong Sheng WANG. Modification of Montmorillonite through Intercalative Polymerization. Chinese Chemical Letters, 2003, 14 (1) , pp. 108110 17. Yebassa D, Balakrishnan S, Feresenbet E, Raghavan D, Start P R. Chemically Functionalized Clay Vinyl Ester Nanocomposites: Effect of Processing Parameters. Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: Polymer Chemistry, 2004, 42, pp. 13101321.</p>

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