Electronics Laboratory Manual

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    FG

    A B

    G

    T

    DC Voltm

    0.007m V+

    -

    AC Voltm

    7.0717 V+

    -

    Oscil.

    University Of JordanFaculty of Engineering

    Electrical Engineering Department

    Electronics Lab

    Eng. Sanaa Al- Khawaldeh

    Eng. Noor Awad

    0903368

    Prepared by

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    Exp No. Experiment Page

    1 Lab Equipment Familiarization 3

    2 Diode Characteristics & Rectifications 8

    3 Diode Clippers & Clampers 13

    4 Zener Diode Characteristics & Voltage Regulator 18

    5 Bipolar Junction Transistor Characteristics 23

    6 BJT ac Amplifier & Switch 28

    7 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor 33

    8 BJT Frequency Response Amplifiers 39

    9 Operational Amplifier Application 42

    10 Project Design

    11 Appendix

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    Theory

    Oscilloscope

    Using an Oscilloscopecan be easy! The less you ask from it, the easier it is to use.

    Work in any circuits & electronics lab relies heavily on the use of the digital multi-

    meter (DMM), the Oscilloscope, and the Function Generator. You have already

    gained some experience with the DMM; in this experiment we want you to become

    familiar with the Oscilloscope.

    The Oscilloscope is simply the most useful instrument available for testing circuits

    because it allows you tosee(observe) the signals at different points in the circuit. Thebest way of investigating an electronic system is to monitor signals at the input and

    output of each system block, checking that each block is operating as expected and is

    correctly linked to the next. With a little practice, you will be able to find and correct

    faults quickly and accurately. Also it can be employed to measure voltage, frequency

    and phase shift. Many other quantities such as pulse width, rise time, fall time and

    delay time can be investigated.

    The function of an Oscilloscope is very simple. It draws a

    V/tgraph, a graph of voltage against time, voltage on the

    vertical or Y-axis, and time on the horizontal or X-axis. As

    you can see in Figure 1, the screen of an Oscilloscopealmost has 8squares/divisions on the vertical axis, and 10

    squares/divisions on the horizontal axis. Usually, these

    squares are 1 cm in each direction.

    The Oscilloscope has extremely high input impedance (1 M, parallel with 25 pF),

    which means it will not significantly affect the input signal. This is nice because you

    can use it to test a circuit without having to worry about it causing the circuit to

    behave differently. The probes are connected to an Oscilloscope using BNCs( Baby

    N- Connector).

    An Oscilloscope can be separated into four major sections: 1- Display, 2- Vertical,3- Horizontal and 4- Triggering sections. Table 1 summarized these sections.

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    Lab Equipment Familiarization

    Exp. 1

    Objectives

    To be familiar with the main blocks of the oscilloscope and the function of each block.

    Understand how an oscilloscope works, and how to use the various controls .

    Generate and explore different waveforms that are commonly used. Compute and measure Vp-p, Vp, Vavg, and Vrms.

    Measure the period and frequency of periodic ac signals.

    Figure 1

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    Table 1

    Display

    Section

    Controls the graph on the CRT.

    POWER Turns ac mains on and off.

    INTENSITY Adjusts the brightness of the trace.

    FOCUS Adjusts the sharpness of the trace.

    Vertical

    Section

    Suppli es the in formation f or the Y-axis (or verti cal axis). Usuall y the scope has twochannels. This means two signals can be viewed at once.

    VOLTS/DIVVertical sensitivity controls the number of volts between eachhorizontal line on the screen.

    POSITION

    Allows you to move the trace up or down as you see it fit. This wayyou can zero the trace when no voltage is applied, or if you areviewing two waves at once you can separate them.

    VERT MODE

    Channel 1/A: shows only channel 1s signal.Channel 2/B: shows only channel 2s signal.

    Dual: shows both signals at once.Add: Algebraically adds channel 1 to channel 2.

    VARVariable: allows you to adjust the calibration of the signal. Be surethis is locked in the CAL position.

    AC/GND/DC

    Called coupling switch.AC coupling: the scope will display the AC component; block any

    DC component from being displayed.DC coupling: the scope will display the complete signal including

    the DC component.

    GND: Disconnects the input signal from the system so you canestablish a zero line.

    Horizontal

    Section

    The hori zontal axis on a scope changes with r espect to time.POSITION Allows you to adjust the wave to the left or right.

    TIME/DIV

    Controls the rate at which the trace travels between divisions. Set it

    to one second and the trace will take a second to travel between onedivision and the next.

    X10 MAG Multiplies the time trace by 10.

    XYThis cause the scope to graph channel 1/A on the x-axis and channel

    2/B on the Y-axis.

    SWP VARWhen in, you can vary the time base away from the Time/Div dial.Be sure this is locked in the CAL position.

    Triggering

    Section

    Th is tell s the scope when to tr igger or star t the beginning of a trace. Helps i t to" lock-on" to the trace.

    LEVELAllows the user to vary the waveform in order to synchronize thestart of the wave.

    HOLD OFFAllows fine tuning of the Level. Useful when a trace is tough tolock-on to.

    AUTO Automatically operates trigger on its own action.

    COUPLING Usually set to AC for this lab.

    SOURCE Set to Channel 1/A or Channel 2/B. Which ever works better.

    SLOPE + - Flips the waveform on both channels by determining whether theslope triggers on the positive or the negative slope.

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    Coaxial Cables

    The cables you are using to connect the FG and the Scope,

    are called coaxial cables, and they contain two coaxial

    conductors with characteristic impedance of 50 . The center

    or inner (High) conductor carries the signal and the outer

    conductor is typically connected to ground (Low) at one or

    both ends of the cable. Figure 2 shows a cross section of a

    coaxial cable. Properly grounded coaxial cables are reducing

    or prevent the noise and interference signals.

    Outer insulation Outer conductor Inner insulation

    Inner conductor

    Figure 2

    Function Generator

    The Function Generator can produce periodic signals of varying frequency, amplitude

    and several different shapes including: Sine, Square andTriangular signals,

    TTL/CMOSdigital pulses, etc. Both frequency and amplitude can be varied.

    Procedure

    PART AUsing Oscilloscope and Function Generator

    1- Turn on the Oscilloscope, choose CH1 from the Vertical

    Mode (to display only channel 1 signal). Set the

    Oscilloscopes Volts/Divisionknob for channel 1 to2V/DIV, and set the sweep Seconds/Divisionknob to

    0.2 ms/DIV.

    2- Set the coupling switch (AC/DC/GND) to GNDand move

    the trace to the middle of the screen. When you finish set

    the coupling switch to ACagain.

    3- Turn on the Function Generator and connect the output of

    it to the input of CH1 of the Oscilloscope.

    4- While observing the signal on the Oscilloscope, turn the amplitude potentiometer

    knob and the frequency knob of the Function Generator to get 8Vpp,1kHz on the

    Oscilloscope screen.

    5- Draw the signal displayed on the Oscilloscope screen.6- Turn the Volts/Divisionknob for channel 1 in the CW and then CCW directions.

    How does that affect what you see on the Oscilloscope?

    Equipments & Part List

    1- Oscilloscope. 2- Function Generator (FG) or Signal Generator.

    3- Digital Multimeter (DMM). 4- Bread-board.

    6- Connection Wires and coaxial cable Probes.

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    Note

    Be sure that the VAR knob of the Volt/Division and Second/Division is locked in the

    CAL (Calibration) position, so dont change it.

    Note

    DMM can be used as continuity tester to check the connection between the grounding pin

    (on the line plug) and the metal parts of the Oscilloscope, especially with BNC connectors

    and grounding jack. All metal parts of the Oscilloscope case connected to the building

    ground when is Oscilloscope plugged in, which is for safety purposes

    Note

    Practically DMMs are used to measure the Effective Voltage (Vrms) and the average

    Voltage ( Vavg). Such that:

    Vrms= VAC (only for pure sine wave)

    Vavg= VDC

    7- Turn the Seconds/Division knob for channel 1 in the CW and then CCW

    directions. How does that affect what you see on the Oscilloscope?

    8- Turn the Intensityknob for channel 1 in the CW and then CCW directions. How

    does that affect what you see on the Oscilloscope?

    9- Turn the Focusknob for channel 1 in the CW and then CCW directions. How

    does that affect what you see on the Oscilloscope?

    10- Turn the Vertical Position knob for channel 1 in the CW and then

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