ELEMENTS & STRUCTUREOF SHORT STORIES7th Grade Creative Writing
FIVE ELEMENTS OF A SHORT STORYSetting
Five Elements Rap(WHO)(WHAT)(WHERE)(WHEN)(WHY)The who, what, where, when, why and how(HOW)
SETTING (WHERE & WHEN)Time and place in which the story occurs.
Writers often use descriptions of landscape, scenery, buildings, seasons or weather to provide a strong sense of setting.
Setting often plays a role in foreshadowing the plot.
Ex. A story about survival often takes place in the wilderness. The wilderness can even be the enemy to the main character.
CHARACTER (WHO)A character is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a short story or other literary work.ProtagonistAntagonistCharacter who causes problems for main character. Often the bad guy of the story. This doesnt always have to be a person.Main character who is faced with a conflictVSTYPES OF CHARACTERSSUPERMANLEX LUTHER
CONFLICTThe conflict is a struggle between two people or things.
The protagonist (main character) is usually on one side of the conflict and the antagonist (bad guy) is on the other.
The main character may struggle against another character, against the forces of nature, against society, or even against something inside himself or herself (feelings, emotions, illness).
MAN VS. MANMAN VS. SELFMAN VS. SOCIETYMAN VS. NATURE
THEMEThe theme is the central idea or belief in a short story. What the story is about.
This is often a moral lesson that the reader can identify with.
The reader should be able to understand the theme by the end of the story.
Ex. Good vs. Evil, Crime doesnt pay, isolation, survival of the fittest, dont go somewhere you dont belong
PLOT (STORY STRUCTURE)
EXPOSITION (INTRODUCTION)Characters and setting are established.
Background info for plot or character (if any) is introduced.
The conflict or main problem is also introduced.
RISING ACTION (BUILD UP)In this part of the story, the main character is aware a conflict has arisen and takes some kind of step to battle this crisis.
The main problem or conflict is dealt with by some kind of action. The complication can arise through a character's conflict with society, nature, fate, or a number of themes.
This is the place for tension and excitement.
CLIMAX (TURNING POINT)The climax is the main event or danger that the protagonist faces.
The turning point may be either physical or emotional.
For example, in a romance, the girl may turn the hopeful lover down, in an action story, the protagonist may be surrounded by enemies with no chance of escape.
FALLING ACTION (WINDING DOWN)Following the climax, the story begins to slowly wind down.
Falling action shows the consequences (good or bad) of the actions or decisions the character has made.
Falling action is a transition between the climax and the resolution.
RESOLUTION (CONCLUSION)All conflicts are resolved
The reader should fully understand what the characters intentions were.
Loose ends are either tied up or can be left for the reader to decide.