Discuss current trends in using formal education for development. Relate how assessment of personality type, work behaviors, and job performance can be used for employee development. Describe the benefits that protgs and mentors receive from a mentoring relationship.
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Explain the characteristics of successful mentoring programs. Tell how job experiences can be used for skill development. Explain how to train managers to coach employees.
Explain the key features of an effective development strategy and how elearning incorporates them. Describe the steps in the development planning process. Discuss the employees and companys responsibilities in the development planning process.
Development refers to formal education, job experiences, relationships, and assessments of personalities and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.
Training Focus Current Use of work Low experiences High
Preparation for current job
Preparation for changes Voluntary
Employee development is a necessary component of a companys efforts to: Improve
quality Retain key employees Meet the challenges of global competition and social change Incorporate technological advances and changes in work9-7
Formal education programs include: off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the companys employees short courses offered by consultants or universities executive MBA programs university programs in which participants actually live at the university while taking classes9-9
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ProgramExecutive Development Sequence
DescriptionEmphasis on strategic thinking, leadership, crossfunctional integration, competing globally, customer satisfaction
Senior professionals Management and executives Development identified as high- Global Business potential Executive Development
Core Leadership Program
Development of Managers functional expertise, business excellence, management of change
Corporate Entry Leadership Professional Development New Manager Development Experienced Manager Audit Staff
Increasing use of distance learning by many companies and universities. Companies and the education provider create short, custom courses, with content designed specifically to needs of the audience. Supplementing formal courses from consultants or university faculty with other types of training and development activities.9 - 11
Assessment involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior, communication style, or skills. Used most frequently to: identify employees with managerial potential measure current managers strengths and weaknesses identify managers with potential to move into higher-level executive positions Work with teams to identify members strengths and weaknesses, and factors 9 - 12 that inhibit productivity
MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Assessment Center
Performance Appraisals & 360-Degree Feedback
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Most popular psychological test for employee development. Used for understanding such things as: Communication Motivation Teamwork Work
styles Leadership9 - 14
Examples of how used: Can be used by salespeople who want to become more effective at interpersonal communication by learning things about their own personality styles and the way they are perceived by others. Can
help develop teams by matching team members with assignments that allow them to capitalize on their preferences. Can help employees understand how the different preferences can lead to useful 9 - 15
The assessment center is a process in which multiple raters or evaluators evaluate employees performance on a number of exercises. Usually
held at an off-site location Used to identify if employees have the abilities, personality, and behaviors for management jobs. Used to identify if employees have the necessary skills to work in teams.9 - 16
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EXERCISES SKILLSIn-basket Scheduling Leaderless Personality Role Play Exercise Group Test Discussion X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Leadership Problem solving Interperso nal Administra tive Personal
Benchmarks is an instrument designed to measure important factors in being a successful manager. Items measured are based on research that examines the lessons executives learn at critical events in their careers. This includes items that measure managers skills in dealing with subordinates, acquiring resources, and creating a productive work climate.9 - 18
Resourcefulness Doing whatever it takes Being a quick study Building and mending relationships Leading subordinates Compassion and sensitivity Straightforwardness and composure
Confronting problem subordinates Team orientation Balance between personal life and work Decisiveness Self-awareness Hiring talented staff Putting people at ease9 - 19
Performance appraisal is the process of measuring employees performance. Approaches for measuring performance: Ranking employees Rating
work behaviors Rating the extent to which employees have desirable traits believed to be necessary for job success (e.g., leadership) Directly measuring the results of work performance.
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The appraisal system must give employees specific information about their performance problems and ways they can improve their performance: Providing a clear understanding of the differences between current performance and expected performance. Identifying the causes of the performance discrepancy. Developing action plans to improve performance.9 - 21
Managers must be trained in providing performance feedback. Managers must frequently give employees performance feedback. Managers also need to monitor employees progress in carrying out the action plan.9 - 22
Rati ng For m
Rati ng For m
Rati ng For m
Rati ng For m
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Understand strengths and weaknesses. Review ratings for strengths and weaknesses. Identify skills or behaviors where self and others ratings agree and disagree. Identify a development goal. Choose a skill or behavior to develop. Set a clear, specific goal with a specified outcome.9 - 24
Identify a process for recognizing goal accomplishment. 4. Identify strategies for reaching the development goal. Establish strategies such as reading, job experiences, courses, and relationships. Establish strategies for receiving feedback on progress. Establish strategies for receiving reinforcement for new skills or behavior.3.9 - 25
The system must provide consistent (reliable) ratings. Feedback must be job-related (valid). The system must be easy to use, understandable, and relevant. The system must lead to managerial development.9 - 26
Job experiences refer to relationships, problems, demands, tasks, or other features that employees face in their jobs. Most employee development occurs through job experiences. A major assumption is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employees skills and past experiences and the skills required for the job.9 - 27
To be successful in their jobs, employees must stretch their skills. They must be forced to learn new skills, apply their skills and knowledge in a new way, and master new experiences.
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Making transitions Creating change
Unfamiliar responsibilities Proving yourself Developing new directions Inherited problems Reduction decisions Problems with employees High stakes Managing business adversity Job overload
Having high level of responsibility
Being involved in non-authority Influencing without authority relationships Facing obstaclesAdverse business conditions Lack of top management support Lack of personal support
Enlargement of Current Job Rotation(Lateral Move)
Job Experience s Tempora ry Assignm ent with Another 9 Organiz - 30
Downw ard Move
Job rotation is used to develop skills as well as give employees experience needed for managerial positions. Employees understand specific skills that will be developed by rotation. Job rotation is used for all levels and types of employees.
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Job rotation is linked with the career management process so employees know the development needs addressed by each job assignment. Benefits of rotation are maximized and costs are minimized through managing time of rotations to reduce workload costs and help employees understand job rotations role in their development plans. All employees have equal opportunities for job rotation assignments.9 - 32
Employees can also develop skills and increase their knowledge about the company and its customers by interacting with a more experienced organizational member. Two types of interpersonal relationships used to develop employees:Mentoring Coaching
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Mentor and protg participation is voluntary. Relationship can be ended at any time without fear of punishment. Mentor-protg matching process does not limit the ability of informal relationships to develop. Mentors are chosen on the basis of their past record in developing em