Energy in the cell photosynthesis - cellular respiration

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  • 1.Energy in a Cell

2.

  • Cells need energy to do a variety of work:
    • Making new molecules.
    • Building membranes and organelles.
    • Moving molecules in and out of the cell.
    • Movement.

3.

  • Food is broken down to a form the cell can use.
  • Extra energy is stored in an ATP molecule, a nucleotide.

4.

  • ATP adenosine triphosphate is a molecule made up of an adenine, ribose, and 3 phosphate groups.

Adenine Ribose phosphate groups 5.

  • Energy is stored in the bond between the second and third phosphate group.
  • When the bond is broken, energy is released and ADP is formed.

Adenine Ribose 6.

  • Within a cell, formation of ATP from ADP and phosphate occurs over and over, storing energy each time.
  • As the cell uses energy, ATP breaks down repeatedly to release energy and form ADP and phosphate.

7.

  • Cells make energy in two ways:
    • Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts.
    • Respiration takes place in the mitochondria.

8.

  • Autotrophs make their own food by trapping light energy and converting it to chemical energy (carbohydrates).

9.

  • Using light from the sun, plants combine water and carbon dioxide to make sugar .
  • General Equation:
  • 6CO 2+ 6H 2 O + energyC 6 H 12 O 6+ 6O 2
      • Reactants Products

10.

  • 2 Reactions
    • Light Reactions
    • Calvin Cycle

11.

  • Light Reactions Light energy is converted to chemical energy to split hydrogen from water.
    • Takes place in the grana of the chloroplasts (the coin-like stacks of sacs).
    • Byproducts are oxygen, NADPH, and ATP.

12.

  • Calvin Cycle ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used along with CO 2to form a simple sugar (glucose).
    • Takes place in the stroma of the chloroplasts (the liquid filling).
    • Byproducts are C 6 H 12 O 6(glucose), ADP, and NADP +(which return to the light reactions).

13. Sunlight NADP + ADP NADPH CO 2 H 2 O O 2 CHLOROPLAST Calvin cycle ATP Glucose Photosystem I & II 14.

  • Some autotrophs can convert inorganic substances to energy.
  • Most are adapted to live in conditions where there is no oxygen.
    • Marshes.
    • Lake sediments.
    • Digestive tracts of mammals.
    • Deep in the ocean.

15. 16.

  • The process of breaking down food molecules to release energy.
  • Occurs in the mitochondria.
  • Two types:
    • Aerobic requires oxygen.
    • Anaerobic requires an absence of oxygen.

17.

  • Two types of anaerobic respiration:
    • Fermentation occurs when bacteria break down plants (vegetables and fruit) and release alcohol or vinegar.
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation occurs in muscles a buildup of lactic acid causes soreness.

18.

  • Steps
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs Cycle (or Citric Acid Cycle)
    • Electron Transport Chain

19.

  • Glycolysis glucose is split to form pyruvate.
    • Takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.
    • ATP is a byproduct.

20.

  • Krebs Cycle pyruvate is used to build citric acid (a carbon compound), which is broken down to release ATP.
    • Takes place in the cristae (the folded membrane in the mitochondrion).
    • CO 2is released, and NADH carries hydrogen ions to the electron transport chain.

21.

  • Electron Transport Chain hydrogen ions are stripped of their energy, and large amounts of ATP are formed.
    • Takes place in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.
    • The used ions are combined with oxygen to form H 2 O.

22. MITOCHONDRION CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP NADH Heat Electron Transport System ATP NAD + citric acid cycle Pyruvate Glucose ATP 23. Sunlight Photo- System I Photo- system II NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Calvin CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP ATP NAD + NADH Electron Transport System Cycle Krebs Heat CHLOROPLAST MITOCHONDRION Glucose Pyruvate Cycle ATP Glycolysis 24. Sunlight Photo- System I Photo- system II NADP + ADP NADPH ATP Cycle Calvin CO 2 H 2 O O 2 ATP ATP NAD + NADH Electron Transport System Cycle Krebs Heat CHLOROPLAST MITOCHONDRION Glucose ATP Pyruvate Glycolysis