Presence is key for facilitators and learners. Every participant needs to give and receive a sense of presence for collaborative learning to succeed in a distance learning setting. A sense of membership in the group for the participants involved in any learning setting.
Facilitator to learner(s) -- "supportive, open, and respectful" (Durrington,p. 191). This should be expected from the facilitator to learner interaction, but should also be a guide for all interactions independent of direction. "Educator as artist, network administrator, concierge, curator" (Siemens, p. 17).
Learner participant to facilitator communnication: guides have been posted forms of communicate publicily within class or privately are provided.
Learner to learner: blogs, wikis, student-moderated discussions. Student to student "exchanges are important, if not more" (p.191). These interactive tools are beneficial for 2 person interactions and group interactions.
Prensence of more than 2 person interactions, but of collaborative groups and classroom interactions: Group interactions involve more than two way interactions. To guide these interactions criteria and rubrics or lists can provide some structure with room for expression.