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English Constitutionalism, Pt 1 13: Paths to Constitutionalism & Absolutism

English Constitutionalism, Pt 1 Ch 13: Paths to Constitutionalism & Absolutism

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  • English Constitutionalism, Pt 1 Ch 13: Paths to Constitutionalism & Absolutism
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  • Today English Constitutionalism Pt UNO Oliver Cromwell reading Tomorrow = ID Quiz
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  • Focus Question What were the main issues in the struggle between the King and Parliament in England and how were they resolved?
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  • What is Constitutionalism? Limitation of government by law Balance between authority of govt and rights of citizens Government acknowledges it must respect the laws Ultimate authority rests in voters, though monarchs possess political authority
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  • An Overview of Social Classes in England Nobility Gentry Yeomen Craftsmen, tenant farmers, and laborers
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  • An Overview of Political Structure in England King/Queen Parliament House of Lords House of Commons Balanced authority
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  • House of Lords Made up of nobility and superior clergy Appointed Usually hereditary Possess veto power
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  • House of Commons Lower house Made up mostly of landed gentry becoming wealthier & wealthier Elected Given the say over all measures to initiate taxation Many were sheriffs, justices of the peace, etc
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  • Women Could not vote Could not hold an office Discouraged from expressing their political views in public Indirectly influenced politics
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  • Political Problems King and Parliament struggled to determine each others role in government James I came into power after Elizabeth's death, exercising the divine right of kings and alienating Parliament. Tudors had acted with more balance between monarchy & Parliament
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  • James I Also King of Scotland, cousin of Elizabeth I Authorized King James version of the Bible (first English translation) Divine right of Kings The True Law of Free Monarchies (1598) Died in 1625 "The State of monarchy is the supreme thing on Earth........ As to dispute what God may do is blasphemy, so is it treason in subjects to dispute what a king may do.....
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  • Union of England and Scotland Proposed in 1608 (under James I/VI) Not official until 1707 (under Queen Anne) England + Scotland = Great Britain
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  • Puritans Puritans were basically Calvinists in the Anglican Church Preferred a presbyterian model of church administration and wanted James to get rid of the episcopal system James refused because kings appointed bishops (POWER ) Presbyterian = run by elders and ministers Episcopal = run by bishops
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  • Charles I and Parliament Parliament passed the Petition of Right, which prohibited the monarch from taxing the people without Parliaments consent. Charles I accepted it at first, but later realized how much it limited his power Decided not to summon Parliament 1629 to 1640 Collected some tax money through ship money coastal towns paid for defense Charles I - Son of James I
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  • Charles I Religious Policy Charles I married a Catholic woman, Henrietta Maria, from France, which aroused suspicion for his religious preference. Tried to introduce more ritual to the Anglican church; Puritans believed it was a return to Catholicism.
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  • Charles I - Religious Policy Attempted to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian church, who rose up in rebellion against the king
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  • Charles I - Religious Policy Charles I was forced to summon Parliament because he did not have the funds to raise an army in order to defend against the Scots. This was their first meeting in 11 years.
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  • The Long Parliament Lasted more or less from 1640 to 1660 Limited royal authority in their first session. Abolished taxes imposed without Parliaments consent. Passed Triennal Act Parliament must meet at least once every 3 years Pushed for the elimination of bishops in the Anglican church.
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  • The Long Parliament Charles I tried to arrest some of the more radical Parliament members such as John Pym and his fellow Puritans. This pushed them too far CIVIL WAR!! John Pym, Puritan
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  • English Civil War
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  • The English Civil War Parliamentarians and Royalists. Very few actual battles (only 4) War of words over 22,000 newspapers/ pamphlets printed War of hardship and plundering
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  • The Parliamentarians Supporters of the English Parliament. Also known as Roundheads. Led by Oliver Cromwell. Wanted to bring more power to the English Parliament and remove power from the monarch. Scots eventually ally with them
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  • The Royalists Supporters of King Charles I and Charles II. Also known as Cavaliers. Sought to keep power with the Monarch. (King Charles I)
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  • Events Start of the War 1642 King Charles raises his standard at Nottingham signaling the start of the war.
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  • Civil War in England
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  • Cromwell & the New Model Army 1645 Cromwell created the New Model Army Army ranks are based upon skill and ability rather than social class. Did not plunder Becomes modern military system. Leads to success for the Parliamentarians.
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  • End of the 1 st Civil War 1646 King Charles I is captured by the Parliamentarian army.
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  • End of the 1 st Civil War Split within Parliamentarians Some wanted to disband army and restore Charles I with a presbyterian state church Independents wanted more radical changes and no restoration of king Charles fled and escaped with the help of the Scots starts 2nd civil war
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  • Rump Parliament Presbyterian members purged from Parliament, leaving a Rump Parliament Abolished monarchy & House of Lords Tried and condemned the King on charge of treason
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  • End of the 2 nd Civil War 1649 King Charles is captured by the Parliamentarian army. He is beheaded and the Parliamentarians claim victory over the second civil war.
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  • Puritan Revolution Parliament won Civil War Proclaims England a commonwealth republic Cromwellmilitary dictator
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  • Oliver Cromwell Crushes a Catholic uprising in Ireland and an uprising in Scotland, making him an enemy Also faced opposition at home
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  • Oliver Cromwell Levellers advocated advanced ideas like religious toleration, freedom of speech, equality of men and women, etc. Put down by Cromwell Other radical groups popped up as well
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  • Oliver Cromwell Cromwell as Lord Protector, military generals governed various regions Dissolved Parliament Levied taxes and imposed even more arbitrary policies than Charles I
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  • Restoration of the Monarchy Cromwell died in 1658 Succeed by his son and other military dictators This did not work Eventually Reestablished the monarchy under Charles II
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  • Opposing Viewpoints: Cromwell Answer the four questions on the back or a separate sheet of paper 1.What motivated Cromwells political and military action? 2.What was Edmund Ludlows criticism of Cromwell? 3.In what ways did Edward Hyde (Lord Clarendon) see both good and bad features in Cromwell? 4.How do you explain the differences in these three perspectives?