ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION SKILLS LAB

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  • ENGLISH LANGUAGE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

    LAB MANUAL

    Name

    Roll No.

    Branch

    Section

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

    Page 2

    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

    Page 3

    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    OBJECTIVES

    To facilitate computer-aided multi-media instruction enabling individualized and independent language learning

    To sensitise the students to the nuances of English speech sounds, word accent, intonation and rhythm

    To bring about a consistent accent and intelligibility in their pronunciation of English by providing an opportunity for practice in speaking

    To improve the fluency in spoken English and neutralize mother tongue influence

    To train students to use language appropriately for interviews, group discussion and public speaking

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    CONTENTS

    Exercise I

    CALL Lab: Introduction to Phonetics Speech Sounds Vowels and Consonants

    ICS Lab: Ice-Breaking activity and JAM session

    Articles, Prepositions, Word formation- Prefixes & Suffixes, Synonyms & Antonyms

    Exercise II

    CALL Lab: Structure of Syllables - Past Tense Marker and Plural Marker Weak Forms

    and Strong Forms - Consonant Clusters.

    ICS Lab: Situational Dialogues Role-Play- Expressions in Various Situations Self-

    introduction and Introducing Others Greetings Apologies Requests Social and

    Professional Etiquette - Telephone Etiquette. Concord (Subject in agreement with verb) and

    Words often mis spelt- confused/misused

    Exercise - III

    CALL Lab: Minimal Pairs- Word accent and Stress Shifts- Listening Comprehension.

    ICS Lab: Descriptions- Narrations- Giving Directions and guidelines.

    Sequence of Tenses, Question Tags and One word substitutes.

    Exercise IV

    CALL Lab: Intonation and Common errors in Pronunciation.

    ICS Lab: Extempore- Public Speaking

    Active and Passive Voice, Common Errors in English, Idioms and Phrases

    Exercise V

    CALL Lab: Neutralization of Mother Tongue Influence and Conversation Practice

    ICS Lab: Information Transfer- Oral Presentation Skills

    Reading Comprehension and Job Application with Resume preparation.

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    Exercise I

    CALL Lab:

    Phonetics:

    Introduction to Phonetics:

    Phonetics is a branch of Linguistics. It is a word derived from the Greek word, phone =

    sound/voice. It is the study of sounds and the human voice. Phonology is the study of sound

    patterns of a particular language.

    Phonetics and its importance:

    Phonetics is the scientific study of the speech sounds of a language. The knowledge of

    phonetics enables one to acquire a correct pronunciation, to give a true description of the

    sounds of English, to point out the mistakes in the pronunciation and to differentiate sounds

    of English from those of the mother tongue. All pronunciations use the International

    Phonetic Alphabets. Many phonetics symbols e.g. /P/, /S/, /K/ sound exactly like the most

    common pronunciation of the letter they look like.

    Speech Mechanism:

    English uses pulmonic egressive air-stream mechanism for the production of speech sounds.

    The pulmonic air coming from the lungs is changed into a sound by an organ called Larynx

    present in the throat. Various organs of speech also participate in the production and the

    transmission of different speech sounds. The vocal cords in the throat play a significant role

    in the production of speech. The vocal cords have two main functions. They determine the

    pitch of ones voice and also give voice to our speech sounds i.e. they determine whether a

    speech sound is voiced or voiceless.

    The air-stream mechanism:

    For the production of speech we need an air-stream mechanism. There are three types of

    air-stream mechanisms.

    a) Pulmonic (consisting of the lungs and the respiratory muscles which set the air-stream in

    motion)

    b) Glottalic(in which the larynx, with the glottis firmly closed, is moved up or down to

    initiate the air-stream)

    c) Velaric(in which the back of the tongue is in firm contact with the soft palate, and it is

    pushed forward or pulled forward or pulled back to initiate the air-stream)

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    . For the sounds of English and most Indian languages, we generally make use of pulmonic

    egressive air-stream mechanism, i.e. the air is pushed out of the lungs.

    Organs of Speech:

    The organs of the human body, which produce speech sounds, are together called organs of

    speech. The organs of speech can be studied under three systems articulatory, phonatory

    and respiratory systems.

    Articulatory system comprises of pharynx and oral and nasal cavities. The chief articulators

    in this system are lips, teeth (upper and lower), hard palate, soft palate/velum, uvula and

    tongue. Tongue has three parts - tip, blade/front and back.

    Phonatory system consists of trachea and larynx. Vocal cords and glottis are situated in the

    larynx.

    Respiratory system comprises of lungs and bronchial tubes.

    The vocal cords: The vocal cords are two elastic folds situated in the Adams apple. The

    opening between the vocal cords is called the glottis. The air-stream travels upwards from

    the lungs through the vocal cords. When the vocal cords vibrate, voiced sounds are

    produced. Sounds produced without the vibration of the vocal cords are known as voiceless

    sound.

    The lips: Lips are important part of the articulatory system.

    The tongue: Among the organs of speech, the tongue is the chief articulator. The tongue has

    three parts: the tip, the blade and the back. Any one of these three may be used in the

    production of a sound.

    The teeth-ridge: The teeth-ridge is situated behind the upper row of teeth. Sounds

    produced with the tongue touching the teeth-ridge are known as alveolar sounds.

    The palate: The palate forms the roof of the mouth. The palate has two parts the hard

    palate and the soft palate, which is also called the velum. If you run the tongue along the

    surface of the roof, you will find the first half of the palate hard and the second half soft.

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    ORG ANS OF SPEE CH

    Received Pronunciation (R.P.)

    R.P. is the pronunciation (English Accent) of Southern England. It is used by Oxford

    University, B.B.C. and public schools in England; it is socially adopted by the British people

    and widely accepted as a standard by rest of the world.

    The difficulty with English language is that some letters stand for more than one sound.

    Each symbol is always represented by the same sound. Each sound is always represented by

    the same symbol.

    As the spelling of a word in English is not the true guide to its pronunciation, we need the

    help of other symbols to indicate pronunciation and such symbols are called Phonetic

    Symbols, each symbol stands for one sound only. The phonetic symbols enable us to read

    accurately the pronunciation of a word in the dictionary such as Oxford Advanced Learners

    Dictionary of English and English Pronouncing Dictionary.

    Sounds in English Phonetics:

    The 44 sounds in English Phonetics are categorized into consonants and vowels. There are

    24 consonants and 20 vowels. The 20 vowels are divided into two groups: pure vowels 12

    and diphthongs 8. All the vowel sounds are voiced, and some consonants are voiced and soe

    are voiceless.

    Consonants and Vowels:

    The distinction between consonants and vowels

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    If the air, once out of the glottis, is allowed to pass freely through the resonators, the

    sound is a vowel;

    If the air, once out of the glottis, is obstructed, partially or totally, in one or more

    places, the sound is a consonant.

    Consonant sounds are classified according to three features of articulation.

    1. Vocal fold activity/Force of articulation

    2. Place of articulation

    3. Manner of articulation

    1. Vocal fold activity/Force of articulation

    Consonant sounds which are pronounced with vocal fold vibration are known as

    voiced/voice sounds.

    Consonant sounds which are pronounced without vocal fold vibration are known as

    voiceless/unvoiced sounds.

    Voice sounds: / , , , , , , , , , , , , , , /

    Unvoiced sounds: / /

    2. Place of Articulation

    a. Bilabial: the lips come together, the lower lip is active. The tongue remains in the

    rest position. Eg./ , , , /

    b. Labio-dentals: The lower lip touches the upper front teeth, the tongue is in rest

    position. Eg./ , /

    c. Dental: the tip of the tongue touches the back of the upper teeth.eg. / , /

    d. Alveolars: The tip/blade of the tongue touches alveolar(tooth) ridge. Eg. / , ,

    , , , , /

    e. Palato alveolar: The tip of the tongue touches the tooth ridge. The tongue is raised

    towards the hard palate.eg. / , , , /

    f. Palatals: The front of the tongue touches the hard palate. eg. / /

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    g. Velars: The back of the tongue is contact with soft palate.eg. / , , /

    h. Glottal: the vocal cords come together completely or partially. Eg. / /

    3. Manner of articulation

    a. Plosives/Stops: Total closure during which air pressure builds up followed by a

    sudden release of air. Eg./ , , , , , /

    b. Fricatives: Breath is forsed through a narrow opening, resulting in a hissing sound.

    Eg. / , , , , , , , , /

    c. Affricates: sounds that begin as plosives and then became fricatives. eg. / , /

    d. Nasals: Air is forced to pass through the nose only with the lowering of the soft

    palate and total closure of the mouth. Eg. / , , /

    e. Laterals: Air is allowed to escape around the sides of the tongue.eg. / /

    f. Approxmints/Semi-vowels: Sounds having the qualities of both a vowel and a

    consonant. Eg. / , , /

    2. Vowels: a) Monophthongs

    Fig : Tongue-position of

    RP / I : (indicated by a

    circle)

    Front Central

    Back

    Close

    Half-close

    Half-open

    Open

    i:

    I

    e

    u:

    u

    :

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    Symbol Description

    A centralized front, half-close, unrounded vowel

    A front, close, unrounded vowel

    A centralized, back, rounded vowel

    A back, close, rounded vowel

    A front, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open

    A front, unrounded vowel just below the half-open position

    A back, open, rounded vowel

    A back, rounded vowel between half-open and half-close

    A back, open, unrounded vowel

    A central, half-open, unrounded vowel

    A central, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open

    A central, unrounded vowel between open and half-open

    b) Diphthongs (Vowel Glides)

    Symbol Description

    A glide from a front, unrounded vowel just half-close to centralized, front, unrounded vowel just above half-close.

    A glide from a front, open, unrounded vowel to a centralized, front, unrounded vowel just above half-close.

    A glide from a back, unrounded vowel between the open and half-open positions to a front, unrounded vowel just above the half-close position.

    A glide from a centralized front unrounded vowel just above half-close to a central, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open.

    A glide from a front, half-open unrounded vowel to a central, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open.

    A glide from a centralized, back, rounded vowel just above half-close to a central, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open.

    A glide from central, unrounded vowel between half-close and half-open to a centralized, back, rounded vowel just above the half-close position.

    A glide from back, open, unrounded position to a centralized, back, rounded vowel just above the half-close position.

    Example of Vowels: a) Pure Vowels:

    Symbol Initial Middle Final

    Innocent Pitfall Simile

    East Teach Key

    Oomph Hood You

    Ooze Rule Blue

    Any Friend ----

    At Bat ----

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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    B.V.Raju Institute of Technology Narsapur, Medak District

    Often Hot ----

    Autumn Hall Law

    Art Cart Star

    Account Compare Bitter

    Earn Certain Sir

    Up Bus ----

    b) Diphthongs:

    Symbol Initial Middle Final

    Aim Great Today

    Item Time Cry

    Oil Join Enjoy

    Era Beard Cheer

    Air Careless Fair

    ---- Jury Poor

    Open Road No

    Out Round Row

    ICS LAB:

    JAM:

    Jam is a game that uses extemporaneous speaking and careful listening to emphasize good

    speaking and diction. It is held in a challenging environment where the listeners attempt to

    identify a number of errors. The main emphasis is on straightforward approach. Each

    participant speaks on a topic for a full minute without repetition, hesitation, or deviation.

    Two players are required, along with a moderator.

    Articles:

    There are two articles in English language. They are: 1) The Definite Article 2) Indefinite

    Articles. The definite article is used before the uncountable nouns and the indefinite article

    is used before the countable singular nouns.

    The Definite Article is THE.

    The definite article can be used before the colours, departments, oceans, seas, designations,

    professions, superlative degrees, particular events and incidents etc.,

    Ex: He uses the bluecolour always.

    The girl is very innocent. (Known to all)

    My friend joined in the police department.

  • ELCS Lab Manual Basic Sciences and Humanities

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