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  • EnlightenmentAmerican RevolutionFrench RevolutionHaitian Revolution

    and more revolutions

  • The EnlightenmentInspired by the Scientific Revolution and the English Revolutions

    All things have natural causes that can be discovered by using experimentation, observation and reason

  • DeismThe universe reflects a divine intelligenceDivine Intelligence created the world to function according to natural lawsDivine Intelligence does not break [his] own natural laws; does not interfere/intervene in universe Reason is our guide to understanding the universe and so the Divine Intelligence alsoA few philosophes were atheists but most were deists

  • Why anti-Christianity?Saw it as perpetuating superstition, ignorance and persecutionSo rejected miracles, Jesus divinity, clerical authority, and that spiritual texts were from GodSome philosophers:Hobbes, Locke, Voltaire, Montesquieu, Rousseau

  • MATCH with PhilosophersPower of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual libertyRejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubjects must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual libertyRejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubjects must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual liberty

    Rejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubjects must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual liberty

    Rejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubject must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual liberty

    Rejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubject must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual liberty

    Rejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubject must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before private [in a republic]In the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Power of the government should be absoluteElite trick population into accepting inequalityDue process necessaryGovernment derives from human needNo separation of church and stateFreedom of speechReason should drive government decisionsSeparation of powers requiredA woman could head the govtEveryones rights should be protected equallyFocus on individual liberty

    Rejects divine rightAnti-slaveryRights and liberties are created by agreement of societyCivilization has corrupted societyWritten during the English Civil WarSubject must accept abuses of powerNo separation of powersPeople must put community before privateIn the State of Nature, humanity is free to do anythingReligious tolerationBased on Social Contract theoryPurpose of government is to protect peoples rights

  • Political spectrumRousseau const. Hobbes Divine monarchy Right Monarchy

    LEFT RIGHT

    These terms arise during the French Revolutions

  • Enlightened DespotismA despot is an absolute ruler or autocratAn Enlightened despot was an absolute monarch that tried to apply the principles of reason to their rule while still holding on to all their power!No constitution & no legislatureEncouraged education, religious toleration, organized, rational law code, tax reform, industryCatherine the Great of RussiaFrederick the Great of PrussiaJoseph II of Austria (&HRE)Expansion

  • Frederick the Great of PrussiaKing of PrussiaEstablished elementary schoolsEncouraged industry and innovation in agricultureAbolished torture in most casesBut also went to war with Austria in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years War to expand Prussian territory

  • Catherine the Great of RussiaGerman Queen of RussiaAdmired the ideas of the EnlightenmentReformed Russian law to be more rationalToyed with abolishing serfdom but cracked down on them after a rebellion

  • Joseph II of AustriaEmperor Holy Roman EmpireAbolished serfdomReformed taxesRelied on middle class advisorsAllowed freedom of the pressWeakened Catholic Church power Allowed religious freedomBUT all reforms revoked by successor!

  • Impact of the EnlightenmentLaws based more on reasonReduction of tortureReliance on evidence for truthApplication of scientific method to study of history, coins, chronology, linguisticsBelief in progressNeo-classical art & architectureDESIRE FOR POLITICAL CHANGE

  • Neoclassical Art

  • Neoclassical Architecture

  • Monticello

  • University of Virginia

  • Milton High School!

  • Thomas PaineWhat techniques and allusions does Paine use to draw people into his argument against the English government?

    Who is he trying to appeal to?

    Would the framers of the constitution support his ideas?

  • The American RevolutionWhat were the causes?How/why were the colonies able to defeat Britain?Why/how were the Articles of Confederation overturned (in a coup detat)What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights?

    How/why did the American Revolution impact France?

  • The French RevolutionFinancial bankruptcyMeeting of the Estates Generalrebellion of the 3rd estate delegatesNational AssemblyTennis Court OathBastille Great Fear peasant uprisingsWomens march to Versailles

  • The Oath of the Tennis Court

  • Reforms of the National AssemblyDeclaration of Rights of Man and CitizenConstitutional MonarchyEnd to noble privilege and equality before the lawEnd of monopolies and guildsState control of the French Catholic churchCivil libertiesVoting rights limited to men of property

  • Tri-couleur - French national Flag

  • Problems during the National AssemblyDivisions in the legislature; Difficulty in getting things doneDissatisfaction of supporters of the revolution who had not seen their circumstances improveClergy who refused to take an oath of loyalty to the governmentRoyal family caught trying to fleeFrance went to war against Austria and PrussiainflationPropaganda

  • 2nd Revolution Radicals in the legislature along with the sans c