ERWC Unit 1 Day 6: Writing, Editing, Revising, and Modals
Standards Writing 1.0 Writing Strategies: Students write coherent and focused texts that convey a well-defined perspective and tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the audience and purpose and progression through the stages of the writing process. Organization and Focus: 1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments. 1.3 Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way and support them with precise and relevant examples. Research and Technology: 1.7 Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal scripting, annotated bibliographies). Objectives Students will be able to: write a persuasive essay peer edit essays for organization and content identify and utilize the writing process apply organization strategies to their own writing revise their own writing
STEP 1: PREWRITING THINK Decide on a topic to write about. Consider who will read or listen to your written work. Brainstorm ideas about the subject. List places where you can research information. Do your research.
STEP 2: DRAFTING WRITE Put the information you researched into your own words. Write sentences and paragraphs even if they are not perfect. Read what you have written and judge if it says what you mean. Show it to others and ask for suggestions.
STEP 3: REVISING MAKE IT BETTER Read what you have written again. Think about what others said about it. Rearrange words or sentences. Take out or add parts. Replace overused or unclear words. Read your writing aloud to be sure it flows smoothly.
STEP 4: PROOFREADING MAKE IT CORRECT Be sure all sentences are complete. Correct spelling, capitalization, and punctuation. Change words that are not used correctly. Have someone check your work. Recopy it correctly and neatly.
STEP 5: PUBLISHING SHARE THE FINISHED PRODUCT Turn it in! Read your writing aloud to a group. Create a book/portfolio of your work. Send a copy to a friend or relative. Put your writing on display. Illustrate, perform, or set your creation to music. Congratulate yourself on a job well done!
Step Up to Writing Like a formula Helps with organization Should be able to color code your own writing or someone else's
Organization You should have the following: Introduction, usually 1-2 paragraphs, hooks the reader, provides background and thesis statement (which is a road map for the reader). Body, as many paragraphs as necessary, no set number, all paragraphs should support thesis point by point. Conclusion, 1 paragraph usually, can be 1 statement as well, summarizes main points, explains significance, provides cal to action or agreement.
The Checklist: Does the essay 1. state the writers opinion on the topic in the thesis statement? 2. show knowledge and understanding of the audience? 3. have evidence that supports the thesis statement? 4. anticipate opposing points of view? 5. find some common ground? 6. maintain a reasonable tone? 7. organize and present the writers position as effectively as possible? Comment on each of these points for your partners essay, you can write on the draft if there is room or on a separate piece of paper. Make sure to refer to each step whether they did a good job or not. Tell them what they did well AND what they need to work on.
Grammar: Modals A special kind of verb Different from helping verbs such as have, do, and be. Do not have endings like regular verbs Example: He has, not He cans Used to express ability, possibility, permission, certainty, necessity, obligation, and prediction. Changes the logical meaning of the main verb, so you must make an inference or prediction.
Examples The policeman stopped the speeding cars is just a statement of fact. The policeman might stop the speeding cars suggests it is possible he will stop the cars, but there is also a chance he wont. The policeman should stop the speeding cars makes a recommendation, but just because you believe it should happen, doesnt mean it really will. The policeman must stop the speeding cars communicates that you believe it is urgent for him to stop the cars. Using modals appropriately is an important way to communicate these and other precise meanings to readers or listeners
Modals and Their Meanings ModalPossible Meanings canability or permission couldpossibility or permission maypossibility or permission mightpossibility or permission mustdegree of certainty or necessity shallnecessity shouldobligation willprediction wouldpossibility or preference
Rules Modals Always come first in the verb phrase Always occur with a subject Are always followed by the simple form of the verb, or by have and be Never have an s or ed Never followed by an infinitive (to plus simple verb)
Present/future time modals May refer to either present or future English does not have a real future tense. We use the modal will to predict what will happen in the future. Examples: You should clean your room. I can buy a new car. He will be late.
Past time modals (modal perfects) Are followed by have and the past participle May refer to the past or the past of a future present time Examples: Past- He may have broken the window. Past of a future present time- They could have invented flying cars by 2020.
Phrasal Modals Some verbs have the same meaning as modals, but are formed like regular verbs. They have an s in the third person singular, present tense Are followed by an infinitive (to + verb) See the following chart
Phrasal Modals & Equivalent Modals Phrasal ModalsEquivalent Modals be able tocan be going towill are about towill have tomust have got tomust be supposed toshould ought toshould be allowed tomay be likely tocould be about towould
Homework Second rough draft of essay- must be brought to next class. Bring outside reading book next class. Review notes on active/passive and modals for grammar work next class.