ESRI ArcInfo 8.2 ArcView GIS 3.3 ArcGIS 9.3 ArcView $1,500 ArcEditor $4,000

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ESRI ArcInfo 8.2 ArcView GIS 3.3 ArcGIS 9.3 ArcView $1,500 ArcEditor $4,000 ArcInfo $10,000. GIS 101: Learning to map in the digital age. Shane Bradt, Geospatial Extension Specialist UNH Cooperative Extension. GIS: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • ESRIArcInfo 8.2ArcView GIS 3.3ArcGIS 9.3ArcView $1,500ArcEditor $4,000ArcInfo $10,000

  • Shane Bradt, Geospatial Extension SpecialistUNH Cooperative Extension

    GIS 101: Learning to map in the digital age

  • GIS: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMGeographic information made digital and aligned to a common reference system (georeferenced) GIS layers are by national, state and local sourcesCan provide information on a many types of features, both natural resource and societalCombines geographic layers with descriptive data about those layersUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • What is GIS?GIS = Geographic Information System A system for capturingmanaging manipulating displayinganalyzing spatial dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • What is GIS?

    HardwareSoftwareDataPeopleProceduresUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • What makes GIS work?GIS SOFTWARE - Stack different data layersGIS SOFTWARE - Knows how features are related to each other spatially

    UNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Where do GIS layers come from?UNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Common types of GIS dataTopographic maps InfrastructureRoads, Rail, Trails, Water, Sewer, Phone linesGeologyHydrographyLakes, Ponds, Rivers, Streams Demographic (Census)WetlandsNWI, USGS, Remote SensingSoils Groundwater resourcesLandcover/LanduseWatershed delineationsWildlife Action PlanUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • UNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Not all GIS uses are related to bugs and bunniesUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • THE GHOST MAPUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Bad MapUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Interesting MapUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • METADATA

    Who developed the data?What was the original source data?When was the data developed?When was the last update?What is the scale of the data?What are the attributes of the data?Who to contact to find out more?helps keep track of GIS data for you and othersUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingGIS OptionsUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingGIS OptionsUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingIn your web browserUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingIn your web browserUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingIn your web browserUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingIn your web browserUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingGIS OptionsUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingWith streamed dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingWith streamed dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingWith streamed dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingWith streamed dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingGIS OptionsUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingUsing downloaded dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingUsing downloaded dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Options for computer mappingUsing downloaded dataUNH Cooperative Extension 2010

  • Questions?UNH Cooperative Extension 2010

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    While conversion to a digital format in an important first step, data is virtually useless until it has been georeferenced.Georeference definition: To establish the relationship between page coordinates on a planar map and real-world coordinates. Once data has been georeferenced, the GIS software knows how to relate the data to other geographic data

    Every state has a central database for GIS dataFor local GIS data, also try going to towns, conservation commissions, planning agencies

    Anything which has a geographic location can be displayed as GIS data, not just environmental features.Some examples: underground storage tanks, pipelines, tax burden, graveyards, food preference, population density

    The tabular data associated with the geographic locations give GIS its true power. By linking data to the features on a map, mapping and analysis become much more powerful.

    Geographic Information Systems require more than just the right software. All of the elements shown are required elements of a proper GIS.

    This workshop will introduce you to ArcGIS software using an ArcView license and will acquaint you with some of the procedures typical in its use.Spatial relationships are a defining feature of GIS. In order to be useful, GIS data must be georeferenced in a consistent manner. Each state GIS database will provide data in the same projection, datum and coordinate system.

    The geographic system used varies from state to state. When working with multi-state GIS data, it is important to be aware of the system used in each state. Paper Maps: Traditional maps are transferred into a GIS format by scanning or by digitization of features on the maps.

    GPS: GPS is becoming more common every year as a method for GIS data collection. Out of the three methods, GSP is the easiest and cheapest method for GIS data collection.

    Remote Sensing: Satellite and aerial imagery can be interpreted to provide landcover, landuse, impervious surface, crop condition, ect. Out of the three data sources discussed here, remote sensing requires the most technical skill.

    The amount of GIS data available for free is substantial and continually growing. As an example, we selected a list of GIS data types available in New Hampshire which could be useful for watershed analysis.

    The type of GIS data available can vary significantly from state to state, and community to community. Sometimes traditional data (such as soils surveys) exist, but have not yet been digitized. In other cases, the traditional data may not even exist for all areas of a state.

    Not all states provide the same type of GIS data, nor the same scale and quality of the data types they do share in common. Raster data, or imagery, can also be used to produce maps showing descriptive characteristics of an area. In this example, Landsat imagery has been processed to map landcover types throughout a lake watershed.Remember, any feature which can be linked to a geographic location can be mapped using GIS!The combination of raster images with vector data can be used to produce a striking map.

    In spite of this, the use of tabular data with feature data can be distracting if not used properly. For example, this map shows soils data classified by soil name. Not only are there too many soil types, and thus, too many colors to make any sense of the data, but most audiences would not be able to interpret the map because they are not familiar with soil names.Even if GIS data are correctly georeferenced, layers which purport to show the same feature may not be in complete agreement. In this example, developed areas near Bow Lake are compared between aerial photographs (white areas) and Landsat satellite imagery (red areas). While the two layers agree in some areas, there are many developed areas visible in the aerial photo which are not considered to be developed based on the satellite imagery.

    How can this be? Here are several (among many possible) explanations:

    Scale: The black and white aerial photo was captured with 1 meter pixels and the Landsat image has ~30 meter pixels. We would expect that the smaller developed areas could be visible when using the small pixels, but might be missed by the larger pixels.

    Source date: The black and white aerial photo was taken in 1998 and the Landsat image was from 1988. Some of the white areas visible in the aerial photo could have been developed between 1988 and 1998.

    Classification accuracy: While the black and white aerial photo is simply displayed as captured, the red areas represent Landsat pixels which were classified as developed. Within any classification scheme, there is a certain amount of error. Even in a fairly accurate landcover map, errors can be as high as 15% or more.Metadata is an often overlooked feature of GIS data. This is unfortunate, considering that metadata is crucial for GIS data to be useful to anyone not directly involved with the data development. Be sure to look at the metadata for the GIS data you are using, and if you are creating GIS data, be sure to consider the type of metadata you should create. Dont duck metadata!What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!

    What is GIS?

    Geographic = Earth drawing or a way to describe a location on the Earth

    Information = data pertaining to a location on the Earth

    System = the pieces required to transfer the information about a geographic location

    In this case: a computer, digital data, software, technician and most importantly, the user of the information!