ESS 345 Ichthyology - Juniata ESS 345 Ichthyology Fish diversity and classification Quote of the Day:

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  • ESS 345 Ichthyology

    Fish diversity and


    Quote of the Day: There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having

    been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has

    gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless

    forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved. -Charles

    Darwin, English naturalist (1809 – 1882).

  • Quick Quiz

    Describe in a sentence the largest

    physiographic province in PA (5 EC


  • Physiographic Provinces

    Coastal PlainBlue Ridge

  • Objectives

    Define fish

    Classify and ID the important fishes at the

    family level

    Describe significant traits, relationships,

    ecology, biology, importance,

    conservation, life history, status, etc. of

    each family

  • Importance of fish







    Env indicators


    – Food

    – Medicine

    – Fertilizer

    – Jewelry

    – Tools

    – Fuel

    Threats (poisons,

    pests, parasites)

    Human conflict


  • So, what is a Fish?

    What are the common features?

  • What is a FISH?


    Gill Breathing




  • Fish - definition


    – Long evolutionary history

    – Diverse and adapt

    – We don’t have all the info

    Berra (1981): a poikilothermic, aquatic chordate with

    appendages (when present) developed as fins, whose chief

    respiratory organs are gills and whose body is usually covered

    by scales

  • Fish Classification

    Binomial Name

    – E.g. Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque 1819

    – E.g. Lepomis megalotis (Rafinesque) 1820

    Lepomis = scale shoulder

    megalotis = large ear

  • Fish Classification

    The system is meant to:

  • Classification in General


    – Phylum


    – Order




    That is, genealogical relationships

  • Fish Classification Kingdom: Animalia

    Phylum: Chordata – Class Myxini Hagfish

    Subphylum: Craniata / Vertebrata

    Superclass: Agnatha – Class: Lamprey (Cyclostomata)

    Order: Petromyzontiformes

    Family: Petromyzontidae

    Superclass: Gnathostomata – Class: Chondrychthys (Cartilaginous fishes)

    – Class: Osteichthyes (Bony fishes) (Actinopterygii) 24,000 living forms

    Largest class of vertebrates

  • Subclasses of Osteichthyes

    Sarcopterygii (lobe finned fishes)

    Actinopterygii (ray finned fishes)** – Infraclass Chondrostei (sturgeons, paddlefishes)

    Order Acipenseriformes

    – Acipenseridae

    – Polyodontidae

    – Infraclass Neopterygii (modern ray finned fishes) A few diverse lineages (next slide)

    Division Teleostei – main line

  • Two lineages that

    are difficult to place Order Lepisosteiformes – Lepisosteidae

    Order Amiiformes – Amiidae

    Longnose Gar

  • Teleosts

    Order: Anguilliformes – Anguillidae

    Order: Clupeiformes – Clupeidae

    – Threadfin and gizzard shad (Dorosoma)

    – Alewife and American shad (Alosa)

  • Teleosts

    Order Cypriniformes

    – Cyprinidae

    – Catostomidae

  • Teleosts

    Order Siluriformes

    – Ictaluridae

    Catfishes (Ictalurus)

    Bullheads (Ameiurus)

    Madtoms (Noturus)

    Pylodictis olivaris

  • Teleosts

    Order Esociformes

    – Esocidae: (Esox)

    – Pike, pickerel, musky

    – Mud minnows

    Esox lucius (northern pike)

  • Teleosts

    Order Salmoniformes

    – Salmonidae

    3 species in 3 genera

    Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Salmo trutta

    Salvelinus fontinalis

  • Teleosts

    Order Cyprinodontiformes – Fundulidae – killifishes / topminnows

    – Poeciliidae – topminnows / livebearers

    – Cyprinodontidae - pupfishes

  • Teleosts



    – Gasterosteidae

    – Cottidae

    Cottus bairdi

  • Teleost are:

    A. Lobed fin fishes

    B. Boney fishes

    C. Primitive ray finned fishes

    D. Boney fishes with

    cartilaginous skeletons

    E. Sharks, skates, and rays

  • Teleosts

    Order Perciformes

    – Moronidae

    White Perch

    Striped bass, rock fish

    White bass

  • Teleosts

    Order Perciformes

    – Centrarchidae




    Pumpkinseed, Lepomis gibbosus

    Pomoxis nigromaculatus

    Micropterus salmoides

    Not every sunfish is a bluegill

  • Teleosts

    Order Perciformes

    – Percidae

    – Channidae

    Northern Snakehead

    (Channa argus)

    Etheostoma blennioides

    Sander vitreus


  • Quick Quiz

    What is an adipose fin?

    Name 2 families that have one.

  • What’s the largest fish family?

    1. Minnow

    2. Temperate Basses

    3. Sunfishes

    4. Darter

    5. Perch

    6. Sucker

  • Largest FW family indigenous to

    N. America?

    1. Minnow

    2. Perch

    3. Sucker

    4. Catfish

    5. Shad

    6. FW eels

  • Second largest family

    indigenous to NA

    1. Pike

    2. Salmon

    3. Perch

    4. Pupfish

    5. Sunfish

    6. Bowfin

  • Why are they indigenous to