European state consolidation in the 17th and 18th centuries

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  1. 1. CHAPTER 13European State Consolidationin the 17th and 18th Centuries
  2. 2. What is a Stadholder?
  3. 3. DUTCH REPUBLIC The Dutch government was a progressiverepublic rivaling the system used in the Swisscantons, Venice, Genoa, and even England at thetime its official name was Their High Mightinesses the Estates General of the United Provinces. (the Hooge Moogende) each province had an elected Stadholder asits chief executive Most provinces usually elected the same man (the head of the House of Orange) as Stadholder to provide for a de facto national executive the Burghers became increasingly powerful at the expense of the nobles
  4. 4. RELIGION IN THE NETHERLANDS Dutch society was the most egalitarian in all ofEurope What do you think influenced this trend? Society was extremely tolerant for its era: The Dutch Calvinists split: one group favoring a modification ofCalvinism with less unconditionalpredestination; its main supporters were burghers Arminian led by Jacobus Arminius the more orthodox Calvinist Synod met in at Dordrecht in Holland to deal with James_Arminius_2.jpgthis Arminian heresy By 1632, the Arminians were tolerated as werethe large Catholic minority and the Jewishcommunity haven for the Mennonites and the Pilgrimswho would settle at Plymouth
  5. 5. EXPANSION OF Nationalism was at a peak, fostered by thestruggle for independenceCOMMERCE Dutch Commercial Expansion Includes: Bordeaux Arctic waters for whaling Sailing around (and named) Cape Horn into the Pacific Ocean Trade with India and colonizing the city of Jakarta, Java Founding the Dutch East India Company in 1602 competing with the English in the Spice Islands Opened Japan to trade in the early 1600s; all other Europeans were expelled by the Japanese in 1641 for fear of further Western and Christian influence; Dutch limited to the port city of Nagasaki settlements throughout the New World including Curacao, Caracas, Guiana, & New Netherland (NY); Dutch West India Company Gain the Cape of Good Hope from the Portuguese and settle in South Africa; Dutch settlers mixed with Huguenots tobecome the ancestors of the Afrikaners
  6. 6. THE BANK OF AMSTERDAM The Netherlands remained the Europeanfinancial center especially after 1609 when theDutch founded the Bank of Amsterdam. Coins and the general money supply was in chaos,and inflation was rampant helped to standardize the European economy Created consistent exchange rates became an international measure of value accepted everywhere - depositors could even writechecks on their accounts Dutch government guaranteed the safety of deposits
  7. 7. FOREIGN POLICY 1651 Navigation Acts passed by the revolutionarygovernment in England. restricted all imports into Britain and its colonies, angered the Dutch more esp. the demand to sovereignty over the Narrow Seas (the English Channel). Because of their relatively small population, theDutch could not be major producers or exporters, threatened their economic livelihood. Three wars will erupt as a result final one in 1674 ending with the Britishannexing New York
  8. 8. MORE FOREIGN POLICY ISSUES Louis XIV claimed the Spanish Netherlands in 1667. Louiss forces continued to attack; gain 3 of the 7 provincesby1672 Dutch want William III (of Orange) to become the newStadholder after 22 years of vacancy. elected in 1673 begins to centralize and consolidate his power, headingtowards absolutism (doesnt get that far) as the Netherlands would remain adecentralized republic until 1795 William managed to stave off Louiss forces Rely on alliances with Denmark and Brandenburg; alsohave help from the Austrian and Spanish Hapsburgs. Louis eventually became weary of war, leading to theTreaty of Nimwegen in 1678, the Dutch kept theirterritory intact
  9. 9. DID YOU KNOW?! A typical carrot in the 17th centurywas purple "In the 16th century, Dutch carrotgrowers invented the orange carrotin honor of the House of Orange,the Dutch Royal Family. They didthis by cross breeding pale yellowcarrots with red carrots."
  10. 10. Newly orange, carrots traveled England withDutch travelers during the reign of QueenElizabeth I. The carrot soon caught on in England as both afood and a fashion accessory. Ladies would oftenuse carrot tops to decorate their hats. The settlers at Jamestown in 1607 introducedcarrots to North America.
  11. 11. AP EURO BELLRINGER Read p. 115 in the Ethel Wood book Define: Commercial Revolution Capitalism Mercantilism
  12. 12. GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Looking ahead - William and Mary from the House ofOrange es? imgurl=http://media-2.web. media/23/84823-004-4D1059 5E.jpg&imgrefurl=http://ww ulture-heritage- history/8285-day- history-15.html&usg=__Yx0 ONh5DTho6xqlX6lw4zWDz kUI=&h=450&w=356&sz=6 6&hl=en&start=2&zoom=1 &um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=oVtI GYwZEiB2eM:&tbnh=127& tbnw=100&prev=/images %3Fq%3Dwilliam%2Band %2Bmary%26um %3D1%26hl%3Den%26safe %3Dactive%26client %3Dfirefox-a%26sa%3DN %26rlz
  14. 14. JAMES I OF ENGLAND When Elizabeth dies in 1603, no directheir Stuarts ruling family of Scotland,closest relative King James I Butted heads with Parliament Actually dissolves Parliament and collects the taxes he wants on his own Dissenters Puritans wanted topurify the Church of England ofCatholic practices Call for simpler services and a more democratic church (no bishops) K. James tells them to leave or hell do worse King James version of the Bibleemerged in 1611
  15. 15. Charles I inherits throne in 1625 Behaved like an absolute monarch Imprisoned forces without trial and squeezednation for money 1628 needed to raise taxes again and has tosummon Parliament Wont approve taxation til K. Charles signs the Petition of Right (prohibits king from taxing without Parliaments approval, and prohibits imprisonment for unjust cause) Signs it, but dissolved Parliament in 1629 Rules for 11 years without them Creates bitter enemies especially the Puritans 1637 tries to impose the Book of CommonPrayer on the Scottish Calvinists The revolt, Charles summons Parl. To pay forthe army needed to take care of the revolt
  16. 16. THE LONG PARLIAMENT Met on and off from 1640-1653 Parliament tried and executed the Kings chiefministers Declare Parliament cant be dissolved without theirown consent The Grand Remonstrance Charles I lashes back Leads troops into the House of Commons to arrest itsmost radical leaders They escape through the back door and flee to form theirown armies Parliament is shocked, issue Militia Ordinance allowingParliament to construct their own government
  17. 17. ENGLISH CIVIL WAR 1642-1649 Cavaliers v. Roundheads Charles I and supporters v.Parliament and supporters country gentry, town-dwellingmanufacturers, and Puritanclergy Roundheads led by OliverCromwell Skilled general New Model Army By 1647 the king was in the hands of Parliamentary forces
  18. 18. Parliament puts King Charles on trial Condemned to death as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy January 1649 I am a martyr of the people Says a prayer and then signals the executioner
  19. 19. Shockwave through Europe Kings had been assassinated or killed in battlebut never tried and executed by their own people In England no ruler can claim absolute powerand ignore the rule of law
  20. 20. IRELAND Cromwell brutally crushesrevolts Ulster (N Ireland) hadbeen settled by ScottishProtestants 1652 Parliament exilesCatholics to barren landout past Ireland,disobeying Catholics canbe killed on the spot 1641-1652 nearly half ofIrelands population diedfrom violence, famine, andplague r.jpg
  21. 21. PURITAN INFLUENCE of saints social revolution rule Sunday set aside for religiousobservance Anyone 14 or older caughtprofaning the Lords Day could befined Theatres, lewd dancing, taverns,and gambling are allrestricted/closed down Education is highly encouraged soboth boys and girls can read theBible Encourage marriage to be based onlove to encourage fidelity Cromwell allowed religious freedomto other Protestants, and evenwelcomed Jews back into England(after 350+ yrs of exile)
  22. 22. LORD PROTECTOR Oliver cant get along with the Rump Parliamenteither House of Commons wants to disband Cromwells50,000 man army So he disbands Parliament 1653 Declares himself Lord Protector Imposes Puritan prohibitions Creates the first written constitution for hisrepublicde facto dictatorship Dies 1658, son Richard succeeds him, but Englandhas had enough
  23. 23. 4 Cromwell dies 1658 Puritans lose grip on England 1660 Parliament invites Charles II to take his rightful place as King Monarchy is restored and the people warmly welcome him Reopened taverns and theatres Restored Church of England, tolerated other Protestants
  24. 24. CHARLES II Clarendon Code 1661-1665 excludes Catholics, Presbyterians,and Independents from religious and political life All people in govt have to swear an oath of allegiance to the Church of England Navigation Acts challenge Dutch Treaty of Dover 1670 alliance with French against the Dutch Secret provision? Declaration of Indulgences in 1672 Suspends laws against Catholics and non-Anglicans Test Act (Parliaments reaction) requires officials of the crown to swear an oath of allegiance against transubstantiation More suspicious of Parliament than ever, avoids them from 1681-1685 by using Louis XIV for $ Converts to Catholicism on his deathbed - 1685
  25. 25. JAMES II James II inherits throne 1685 Flaunts his Catholic faith appointsCatholics in hi