Euthanasia Avma

  • View
    23

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • AVMA Guidelines onEuthanasia

    (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia)_________________________________

    June 2007

    Caution - The AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (formerly the 2000 Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia)have been widely misinterpreted. Please note the following: The guidelines are in no way intended to be used for human lethal injection. The application of a barbiturate, paralyzing agent, and potassium chloride delivered in separate syringes or

    stages (the common method used for human lethal injection) is not cited in the report. The report never mentions pancuronium bromide or Pavulon, the paralyzing agent used in human lethal

    injection.

  • AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

    (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia)

    Table of Contents

    PREFACE ....................................................................................................................................................................1

    INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................1

    GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ..............................................................................................................................3

    ANIMAL BEHAVIORAL CONSIDERATIONS .....................................................................................................4

    HUMAN BEHAVIORAL CONSIDERATIONS ......................................................................................................4

    MODES OF ACTION OF EUTHANATIZING AGENTS ......................................................................................5

    INHALANT AGENTS ................................................................................................................................................6

    INHALANT ANESTHETICS ............................................................................................................................................6

    CARBON DIOXIDE .......................................................................................................................................................7

    NITROGEN, ARGON .....................................................................................................................................................9

    CARBON MONOXIDE ...................................................................................................................................................9

    NONINHALANT PHARMACEUTICAL AGENTS..............................................................................................11

    BARBITURIC ACID DERIVATIVES ...............................................................................................................................11

    PENTOBARBITAL COMBINATIONS .............................................................................................................................11

    CHLORAL HYDRATE..................................................................................................................................................11

    T-61 .........................................................................................................................................................................12

    TRICAINE METHANE SULFONATE (MS 222, TMS) ....................................................................................................12

    POTASSIUM CHLORIDE IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRIOR GENERAL ANESTHESIA ...........................................................12

    UNACCEPTABLE INJECTABLE AGENTS ......................................................................................................................12

    PHYSICAL METHODS ...........................................................................................................................................12

    PENETRATING CAPTIVE BOLT ...................................................................................................................................13

    EUTHANASIA BY A BLOW TO THE HEAD ....................................................................................................................13

    GUNSHOT .................................................................................................................................................................13

    CERVICAL DISLOCATION ..........................................................................................................................................14

    DECAPITATION .........................................................................................................................................................14

    ELECTROCUTION ......................................................................................................................................................15

    MICROWAVE IRRADIATION.......................................................................................................................................15

    THORACIC (CARDIOPULMONARY, CARDIAC) COMPRESSION .....................................................................................16

    KILL TRAPS...............................................................................................................................................................16

    MACERATION ...........................................................................................................................................................17

    ADJUNCTIVE METHODS.............................................................................................................................................17

    Exsanguination ....................................................................................................................................................17

    Stunning...............................................................................................................................................................17

    Pithing .................................................................................................................................................................17

    SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS...............................................................................................................................18

    EQUINE EUTHANASIA ...............................................................................................................................................18

    ANIMALS INTENDED FOR HUMAN OR ANIMAL FOOD .................................................................................................18

    EUTHANASIA OF NONCONVENTIONAL SPECIES: ZOO, WILD, AQUATIC, AND ECTOTHERMIC ANIMALS ..............18

    Zoo Animals ........................................................................................................................................................18

    Wildlife................................................................................................................................................................19

    Diseased, Injured, or Live-Captured Wildlife or Feral Species ...........................................................................19

    Birds ....................................................................................................................................................................20

    Amphibians, Fish, and Reptiles ...........................................................................................................................20

    Marine Mammals.................................................................................................................................................21

    EUTHANASIA OF ANIMALS RAISED FOR FUR PRODUCTION .......................................................................................21

    PRENATAL AND NEONATAL EUTHANASIA .................................................................................................................22

    MASS EUTHANASIA ..................................................................................................................................................22

  • AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia

    (Formerly Report of the AVMA Panel on Euthanasia)

    Table of Contents

    POSTFACE................................................................................................................................................................22

    REFERENCES ..........................................................................................................................................................23

    APPENDIX 1AGENTS AND METHODS OF EUTHANASIA BY SPECIES ................................................28

    APPENDIX 2ACCEPTABLE AGENTS AND METHODS OF EUTHANASIA ............................................30

    APPENDIX 3CONDITIONALLY ACCEPTABLE AGENTS AND METHODS OF EUTHANASIA.........32

    APPENDIX 4SOME UNACCEPTABLE AGENTS AND METHODS OF EUTHANASIA..........................35

  • PREFACE At the request of the American Veterinary Medical

    Associations (AVMA) Council on Research, the Executive Board of the AVMA convened a Panel on Euthanasia in 1999 to review and make necessary revisions to the fifth Panel Report, published in 1993.1

    The Report of the 2000 AVMA Panel on Euthanasia was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.216 In that version of the report, the panel updated information on euthanasia of animals in research and animal care and control facilities; expanded information on ectothermic, aquatic, and fur-bearing animals; added information on horses and wildlife