Evaluation competencies of professional and non-professional teachers in Nigeria

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    Without doubt, teacher education is of vital importance for

    has shown that education can improve agricultural productivity,

    enhance environmental protection, and generally raise the

    standard of living (McKeown, 2002).

    and in the evaluation of students academic achievement, which

    is acknowledged as one of the criteria for quality education.

    This study focused on the balance of power between

    teachers evaluation competencies and students learning

    Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

    Studies in Educational Evaluataken to be a life-wide and lifelong endeavor that challenges

    individuals, institutions and societies to view tomorrow as a day

    that either belongs to all of us or will not belong to anyone

    (UNESCO, 2005b). Education is an essential tool for achieving

    sustainability. The relationship between education and sustain-

    able development is complex. Generally, research shows that

    education is an indispensable player in a nations ability to

    develop and achieve sustainability targets. Equally, research

    results stimulates student learning. Studies (e.g., Ololube,

    2004) have shown that absence of effective students evaluation

    results in ineffective classroom management, and this, in turn,

    results in poor academic achievement. Therefore, the education

    of classroom teachers should be a priority.

    We must, moreover, distinguish and compare diverse

    educational systems with our own experiences (Ololube,

    2005a).Nevertheless, education for sustainable development is An effective student assessment and evaluation methodwithin our changing science-based and technology-driven

    world (Zoller, 2000).education. Education is one of the most important institutions

    for the well being of society in that it ensures sustainable

    development (Kansanen, 2004). Educational sustainability is a

    key factor in determining, affecting and/or modifying human

    behaviour, in both individuals and societies. Yet, contemporary

    education has not prepared people to handle local, national and

    global systems of such size and complexity as have emerged

    good schools and excellent teachers (Kansanen, 2004).

    Therefore, teacher education is of paramount importance.

    Thus, the effectiveness of teacher education imposes a range of

    different tasks and responsibilities (Meri & Maaranen, 2002;

    Niemi, 1996). As teachers learn about student assessment,

    measurement and evaluation in their teacher education

    programs, the more positive they become in using these toolsevery country, but it is only a part of a countrys total system of In order to fulfil this mission we need quality education,Evaluation competencies of pr



    Department of Business Management, Faculty of Mana


    Teachers job responsibility has changed significantly in recent years

    to meet the goals of education for sustainable development, especial

    between professional and non-professional teachers evaluation com

    achievement in Nigeria. A simple questionnaire incorporating multiple

    elicited information from 300 respondents on their perception of tea

    professional teachers apply various evaluation techniques more effe

    measures that could help improve the employability of teachers were

    # 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Introduction, rationale, and purposeE-mail addresses: nwachukwu.ololube@helsinki.fi,


    0191-491X/$ see front matter # 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2008.01.004essional and non-professional


    ince Ololube

    ent and Social Sciences, NOVENA University, Nigeria

    d now, more than ever, there are pressing needs for high quality teachers

    n developing countries. This timely study examined the relationship

    ncies and its impact on testing complexities and student academic

    tistical procedures was fashioned containing a range of questions that

    rs evaluation competencies. From the findings, it was revealed that

    vely than non-professional teachers. Further, suggestions regarding

    cinctly discussed.

    enhance the status of women, reduce population growth rates,


    tion 34 (2008) 4451outcomes. Additionally, it emphasised the importance of

    teacher education in fostering effective applications of

    evaluation techniques whose end result bring about quality

  • tioneducation. This is a key theme in sustainable development,

    given that students academic and professional skills are more

    effectively learned when they are accurately evaluated as they

    progress (Ololube, 2005b). This article draws on substantial

    research from industrialised countries in the West and compares

    them to similar situations in Nigeria.

    In Nigeria, both non-professional teachers (academically

    qualified teachers) and those that are professionally qualified

    are engaged in instructional processes in secondary schools. By

    academically qualified teachers, I mean teachers who have

    received academic training as a result of enrolment in an

    educational institution, and, as a result, obtain qualifications

    such as HND (Higher National Diploma), B.Sc., B.A., M.A.,

    M.Sc., and so on. Professionally qualified teachers, on the other

    hand, are teachers who have received professional training and

    thus gained appropriate knowledge, skills, techniques, and

    aptitude rather than general education. They hold professional

    teaching qualifications such as B.Sc. Ed., B.A. Ed., B.Ed., and

    M.Ed. These two categories of teachers evaluation compe-

    tencies and their role in guaranteeing quality education for

    sustainable development instigate information search and

    attribution formulation.

    The motivation for this study stems from the fact that

    education is a fundamental human right. It provides children,

    youth and adults with the power to reflect, make choices and

    enjoy a better life. It breaks the cycle of poverty and is a key

    ingredient in economic and social development (UNESCO,

    2005a). This article is addressed to teachers who share my

    conviction that education can make a difference and for those

    whose daily lives are driven by the imperatives of making

    educational policies and planning in helping children to learn

    effectively (Kerry & Wilding, 2004). Hence, this text is

    addressed first and foremost to teacher educators and teachers

    who seek empirical evidence on their job, and who want to be at

    the very top of their profession as teachers. It is also for

    principals, education planners, and policy makers in developing

    countries, especially those in Africa, with the aim to help them

    come to terms with reality.

    Research question

    The research question for this study is as follows: To what

    extent do teachers employ and use various evaluation

    techniques effectively?

    Theoretical background and literature review

    The concept of evaluation competencies

    Teachers evaluation competencies included in this text are

    the knowledge and skills critical to a teachers role in classroom

    instruction processes. However, it is understood that there are

    many competencies beyond evaluation competencies that

    teachers must possess in order to be effective in their

    instructional processes. Thus, students evaluations are an

    essential part of teaching and good teaching cannot exist

    N.P. Ololube / Studies in Educawithout them as they might have positive implications foracademic progress (Sanders et al., 1990). In the same vein, the

    evaluation of students learning requires that all parties

    involved understand and apply sound student evaluation

    principles (Gullickson, 2002). For example, results from

    studies (e.g., Iwanicki & Rindone, 1995; Peterson, 2000;

    Wheldall & Glynn, 1989) provide powerful evidence for the

    importance of effective evaluation techniques.

    Numerous authors, practitioners, and researchers have

    advanced definitions of evaluation. According, for example,

    to Eraut (in Goddard & Leask, 1992), evaluation is a general

    term used to describe any activity where the quality of provision

    is subject to systematic study. It involves the collection,

    analysis, interpretation and reporting of evidence about the

    nature, impact and value of an entity. Thus, monitoring, review

    and assessment are aspects of evaluation if systematic analysis

    of data is used to provide information for decision.

    Assessment is used as a term for investigating the status of

    an individual or group, usually with reference to certain

    expected outcomes that tell us how well a student or group of

    students have achieved particular concepts or skills using

    various forms of measuring techniques. Assessment is under-

    taken either as a terminal or continuous process. Terminal

    assessment involves one final test or examination at the end of a

    program while continuous assessment is a continuous updating

    of teachers judgment about their students, which permits

    cumulative judgments about their performance. It includes

    finding out how far the learning experiences as developed and

    organized are actually producing the desired results. This

    involves identifying the strengths and weaknesses of a plan, and

    it helps one check the validity of the basic hypotheses upon

    which the instructional program has been developed. In

    addition, it checks the effectiveness of the particular instru-

    ments, including the teachers, that are being used to carry

    forward the instructional program. Evaluation results assist

    teachers to know whether the curriculum has been effective and

    how curriculum programs could be improved upon (Gbamanja,


    On the whole, evaluation is a process by which we find out

    whether planned changes in student behaviour have occurred. If

    these changes have not occurred, we are left to question why

    this is so and what could be done to improve the situation. In a

    broader perspective, several aspects of the curriculum must be

    evaluated such as the objectives, their scope, the quality of

    teachers, principals and other personnel in charge of the

    curriculum, the capability of the students, the relative

    importance of the various subjects, the effectiveness of the

    equipment and materials, the suitability of the instructional

    environment and all strategies and methods proposed to achieve

    the objective at hand. Thus, the value of an evaluation object is

    determined on the basis of a pre-set standard. Teachers set up

    standards through their objectives of instruction: through them

    teachers try to establish whether or not their students meet the

    teaching objectives. Therefore, competent teachers are con-

    cerned with teaching outcomes, both quantitatively and

    qualitatively (Amalaha, 1979; Sanders et al., 1990).

    In the present article I use the above terms in their widest

    al Evaluation 34 (2008) 4451 45sense. However, there are many ways of gaining evidence about

  • (e)


    ion(f) judging the extent of pupil attainment of instructional


    Activities occurring after the appropriate instructional

    segment (e.g., lesson, class, semester, grade)

    (a) describing the extent to which each pupil has attained both

    short- and long-term instructional goals;

    (b) communicating strengths and weaknesses based on

    assessment results to students and parents or guardians;

    (c) recording and reporting assessment results for school-level

    analysis, evaluation, and decision-making;

    (d) analyzing assessment information gathered before and

    during instruction to understand each students progress to

    date and to inform future instructional planning;

    (e) evaluating the effectiveness of instruction; and

    (f) evaluating the effectiveness of the curriculum and materials

    in use.

    These activities imply that teachers need competencies instudback;

    motivating students to learn; and(d) gadjusting instruction;

    iving contingent, specific, and credible praise and feed-l

    (c)identifying gains and difficulties pupils are experiencing in

    earning and performing;(a) m

    (b)onitoring pupil progress toward instructional goals;(d) planning instruction for individuals or groups of students.

    Activities occurring during instructioneclarifying and articulating the performance outcomes

    xpected of pupils; ands

    (c)pecific class content;(b) udomains and/or subject areas;

    nderstanding students motivations and their interests inskills, and abilities as they apply across a range of learning(a) understanding students cultural backgrounds, interests,Sanders et al. (1990) the scope of a teachers professional role

    and responsibilities for student assessment may be described in

    terms of the following activities.

    Activities occurring prior to instructionssment of the whole educational program. According toclass

    assestudents are evaluated properly. Some of these focus on

    room-based competencies while others focus on theT

    thathere are some standards that can be used in making sureTeacsidered an appropriate evaluation procedure.

    hers role as professionals for student assessmenteduc

    conational objectives laid out in a school curriculum isevidericulum programs. Consequently, any way of getting valid

    nce about the kinds of behaviour represented bybehaviour changes in students as a result of particular


    N.P. Ololube / Studies in Educat46ent assessment and sufficient time and resources todesigned for used in the classroom are actually tailored to fit

    into a particular pedagogical strategy. It involves appropriate

    feedback to students, motivating students, identifying group

    and individual learning requirements, evaluating instructional

    procedures, being able to make instructional decision about

    students, and using evaluation data to improve job situations

    (Austin, Dwyer, & Freebody, 2003; Creemers, 1994; Ololube,


    Procedure and methodology

    Demographic information

    The research population for this study was drawn from

    Rivers State, one of the states in the southsouth geo-political

    zone of Nigeria. The population comprised 10 (3.3%)dee

    meaprievaluation materials and techniques used in schools are

    med acceptable or good enough for their students. That

    ns that they have to show how the evaluation instrumentsT

    thehus, teachers need to critically examine the ways in whichaTeachers should be skilled in recognizing unethical, illegal,

    and otherwise inappropriate assessment methods and uses of

    ssessment information (Sanders et al., 1990).e

    7.procedures which use pupil assessments.

    Teachers should be skilled in communicating assessment

    results to students, parents, other lay audiences, and other

    ducators.5. Tschool improvement.

    eachers should be skilled in developing valid pupil gradingtTeachers should be skilled in using assessment results when

    making decisions about individual students, planning

    eaching, developing curriculum, and making changes fort

    4.complete the assessment in a professional manner (Peterson,

    2000). Thus, it is only when teachers understand the techniques

    of evaluation that they will be capable of realizing the potential

    of their students (Amalaha, 1979).

    Standards for teacher competencies in educational

    assessment of students

    The standards below all express specific expectations for

    assessment knowledge or skill that teachers should possess in

    order to perform well in th...


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