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Exam study guide answers. Exam answer Key. 1. Diocletian: Restored order in the empire & increased its strength Governed as an absolute ruler Severely limited personal freedoms Viewed Christianity as a threat He believed that the empire had grown too - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Exam study guide answers1Exam answer Key1. Diocletian:Restored order in the empire & increased its strength Governed as an absolute ruler Severely limited personal freedoms Viewed Christianity as a threat He believed that the empire had grown too large & too complex for one man Divided the empire into two Western (Latin-speaking) and Eastern (Greek speaking)

1. Constantine:Gained control of the Western part of the Empire In 330 AD moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium With Byzantium (Constantinople) was the new capital the center of power shifted from Rome to Constantinople The Western Roman Empire survive until 476 AD, when it ceased to have a Roman Emperor East Roman Empire became the Byzantine Empire survived and become Byzantine Empire

1. Justinian: Reconquest of former Roman territoriesExpansion of tradeHagia Sophia, codified Roman law.2. Easily fortified site , Projection of eastern frontier and crossroads of trade

3. Eastern Orthodox ChristianityCentered in ConstantinopleClose to seat of power after Constantinople became capitalUse of Greek language in the liturgy Roman Catholic ChurchCentered in RomeFarther from seat of power after Constantinople became capitalUse of Latin language in the liturgyAuthority of the Pope eventually accepted in the WestAuthority of the Patriarch acceptedin the EastPractices such as celibacy eventually accepted in the West

4. Byzantine civilization influenced Russian and Eastern European civilizations through its religion, culture, and trade.Trade routes between Black Sea and Baltic SeaAdoption of Orthodox Christianity by Russia and much of Eastern Europe

5. Adoption of Greek alphabet to the Slavic languages by St. Cyril (Cyrillic alphabet)6.The prophet created islam7. Split over the question of who should have succeeded MohammedSuccessor of MuhammadSunni (Majority) is selected or electedShis (Minority) successor must be direct descendant of the Prophets family

8. FaithPrayAlmsgivingFasting during the month of RamadanHajj Pilgrimage to Mecca9. Translation of ancient texts into ArabicUniversitiesArabic alphabetArabic numerals ( adapted from India) including zeroAlgebraMedicineExpansion of geographic knowledge

10.Hejira: The journey of Muhammad and his supporters from mecca to medina to escape persecution Hajj: One of the five pillars of a Muslim a pilgrimage to the holy cityQuran: The most holy text of Islam Jihad: A holy war with the purpose of spreading IslamRamadan: the ninth month of the Muslim year, during which strict fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset..

11. Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, and Central Asia and into SpainFacilitated by weakening of Byzantine and Persian Empires

12. The gradual decline of the Roman Empire, the Church was the institution that survivedBecame the unifying force in western EuropeMonasteries preserved Greco-Roman cultural achievementsMissionaries carried Christianity and the Latin alphabet to the Germanic tribesLocal Parish priests served the social and religious needs of the people

13. Feudalism is a Political System based on Germanic CustomsFeudalism is depended on who controls the land*****Feudal system was based on mutual obligations, in exchanged for military protection or other services to the lordSociety Powerful lords divide lands (fief) among lesser lords (peasants and any towns/bldgs on land)Lesser lords (vassals) pledge service and loyalty (Vassals could have fiefs from several lords

14. Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe, Charlemagne15. Angles and Saxons16. Angles and Saxons, Muslims, Magyars and Vikings, Shattered the Roman protection over Europe. Invasions disrupted trade routes, towns declined, and the feudal system was reinforced

17. The Silk RoadThe Indian Ocean trade networkThe Trans-Saharan caravan routeThe Northern and Eastern trade network18. By 2500 B.C. the Saharan region had begun to dry up, becoming a major obstacle for travelers, Disease traveled along trade routesIn 1347 A.D. the bubonic plague, better known as the Black Death, reached Europe and killed millionsThe Black Death came from ports along the Black Sea, carried by Italian merchant shipsAnother negative interaction was the beginning of the African slave tradeAfricans were traded for goods in W. Africa and moved along the Saharan caravan routes

19. Gold from W. AfricaSpices from India and Indian ocean regionPorcelain from China and PersiaTextiles from India, China, the Mid-East, and later Europe Amber from the Baltic region Paper from China through the Muslim world to Byzantium and Western EuropeImproved navigational charts and lateen sail came from the Indian Ocean Region

20. Buddhism from China to Korea and JapanHinduism and Buddhism from India to Southeast AsiaIslam from the Mideast to West Africa, Central and Southeast AsiaWriting and Architecture

21. Axum became a Christian kingdom after 324 A.D, when missionaries came to their portsThe Axumites were known for their stelae: large, decorated stone columns built to mark royal tombsIn 1300 A.D., the nation of Zimbabwe had developed in southern AfricaZimbabwe had developed along the Zambezi and Limpopo RiversThe nation centered around their capital of Great ZimbabweThe people of Zimbabwe were efficient farmers and raised vast herds of cattle

22. Ghana grew prosperous from the gold and salt trade in West AfricaSalt was necessary for flavoring and preserving foodsThis trade was taxed by the king of Ghana, who was also a religious and military leader23. Mali was expanded by their great king, Mansa MusaHe governed efficiently through provincial governorsNumerous mosques were built under his ruleSonni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber or "Sunni Ali", was born Ali Kolon. He reigned from about 1464 to 1492. Sunni Ali was the first king of the Songhai Empire, located in west Africa and the 15th ruler of the Sonni dynasty24. Mesoamerican: Cultures from the region of Central America and Mexico25. The main cultural center of the Maya was the city complex of Chichen ItzaBy 900 A.D. the Maya had developed:A written languageA calendarSophisticated mathematics and astronomyThe Maya were gone by 1300 A.D.The reason for their destruction is a mystery, though historians now believe it was a result of overpopulation, drought, disease, or a combination of those factors

26. Aztec civilization developed after the Maya had fallen, in 1300 A.D.The Aztec lived in the central valley of MexicoTheir capital city was Tenochtitlan They were ruled over by an emperorPower was delegated to officials who ran the empire Economy based on agriculture andtribute from conquered peoples Polytheistic religion: Pyramids, ritualsThe Aztec were finally conquered in the 1500s when the Spanish arrived in the Americas

27. Incan civilization was established in the 1400s A.D.They lived in South America, in the northern Andes MountainTo link their empire, the Inca built a complex system of roadsFarming was a challenge in the Andes Mountains. To meet this obstacle the Inca:Built sophisticated irrigation canalsTerraced the hills and mountains The Inca, like the Aztec, were also conquered by the Spaniards in the 1500s28. It is based on their agriculture and location.

29. A group of people who are ruled by one central government who share a common language and who feel a sense of loyalty to their nation30. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define England as a nation31. William the ConquerorLeader of the Norman ConquestUnited most of England

32. Force to sign the Magna CartaLimited the power of the kingGuaranteed certain basic political rightsNo Taxation without representationsJury TrailProtection of the lawsConsidered the basic rights both n England and United StatesSet up the Great CouncilEvolution of Parliament33. The Hundred Years War between England and France helped define England as a nation FRANCE, Joan of Arc was an unifying factor A 17 Year old peasant girl.34. Ferdinand and Isabella unified the country and expelled Muslim Moors35. Ivan the Great threw off the rule of the MongolsCentralized power in MoscowExpanded the Russia nationPower was centralized in the hands of the TsarIvan the terrible managed countless changes in the progression from a medieval state to an empire and emerging regional power, and became the first ruler to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russia.36. Desire to free the Holy LandDesire to win wealth and landSearch for adventureEuropeans desire to escape trouble at Home37. Pope Urban s calls for a holy war to free the holy Land 1096Founding of the Crusaders statesLoss of Jerusalem to SaladinSack of Constantinople

38.. EconomyIncreased trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle EastMoney economy grewMonarchyIncrease power of feudal monarchsCould collect taxes to support the CrusadesFeudalism declined because power became more centralizedChurchWeaken the PopeRoman and Eastern Churches splitsWorldviewIncreased contact with other peoplesIncreased travel by EuropeansWider world viewsWeakened the Byzantine Empire

39. The bubonic plague, Decline in populationScarcity of laborTowns freed from Feudal obligationsDecline of Church influenceDisruption of trade40. Wealth accumulated from Europe trade with Middle EastWealth Merchants were active civic leaders

Renaissance produced new ideas in art, philosophy, and literature

41.Who is concerned with the interests and welfare of humans42. Church rule against usury and the practice of charging interest helped to secularize northern ItalyLetters of Credit served to expand the supply of moneyNew accounting and bookkeeping practices ( use of Arabic numerals)

43. Merchants: wealth, powerful class, & dominated politiesMedici (MEHD id-chee)

44.. Middle Ages focused