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NEED to Know
Words to Know•Kalahari Desert•San People•Apartheid•Nelson Mandela•F.W. deKlerk•Desmond Tutu•Thabo Mbeki
South Africa Timeline• 1400s: Zulu and Xhosa tribes establish large kingdoms in the South Africa region.• 1652: The Dutch establish the port of Cape Town. The are the first Europeans to settle in
South Africa.• 1852: The British take control of Cape Town.• 1886: Gold is discovered in Johannesburg, making the city rich.• 1899-1902:Dutch settlers fight the British in the Boer War. Britain eventually gains control of
South Africa.• 1910: South Africa becomes an independent nation.• 1918: Rolihlahla Dalibhunga Mandela is born on July 18 in a small village in South Africa. A
teacher later gives him the English name Nelson.• 1948: Apartheid is introduced. Laws legally and physically separate different racial groups.• 1952: The African National Congress, a black civil rights group, begins a Campaign for
Defiance of Unjust Laws as a protest against apartheid. Nelson Mandela is one of its leaders.• 1960: In the town of Sharpeville, 67 Africans are killed while protesting Apartheid.• 1962: Mandela is arrested for plotting against the government. Though he stays active
politically, he will spend 27 years in prison.• 1976: Hundreds of black protesters are killed in an uprising in Soweto.• 1990: President F.W. de Klerk announces the end of apartheid. Mandela is freed from
prison after serving 27 years.• 1993: De Klerk and Mandela are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.• 1994: South Africa holds its first elections in which all races can vote. Nelson Mandela is
Geography• South Africa is one of the
most geographically varied countries of the African continent.
• rolling, fertile plains • wide open savanna of the
Eastern Transvaal • Kalahari desert • Drakensberg Mountains. • The Kalahari Desert
supports includes animals and plants because most of it is not a true desert.
• small amounts of rainfall • summer temperature is
• The San people or Bushmen have lived in the Kalahari for 20,000 years as hunter-gatherers. (NOMADS)
• Bushmen rarely drink water• They get most of water
requirements from plant roots and desert melons found on or under desert floor: they often store water in the blown-out shells of ostrich eggs.
• The San have their own characteristic language that includes clicking sounds.
• Bushmen live in huts built from local materials (branches, grasses, etc.)
"…They resemble us, but in appearance are the color of pumpkin-porridge…
They are rude of manners and without any graces or refinement.
They carry a long stick of fire.With this they kill and loot from many
nations."Zulu impression of first white men,
taken from Zulu epic poem, Emperor Shaka the Great, translated by Mazisi Kunene, drawing on the memories of a
number of Zulu oral historians.
• The San people were the first settlers
• The Dutch East India Company landed the first European settlers on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 and colonized
• These Dutch settlers became known as Boers or Afrikaners, and speaking a Dutch dialect known as Afrikaans
• Unfortunately, they pursued a policy of racial segregation, based on a belief in the racial superiority of Europeans in all of the areas they settled.
Great Britain• Britain took permanent
possession in 1815 bringing in 5,000 additional settlers.
• Diamonds were discovered in South Africa bringing even more settlers(
• South Africa exports more gold and diamonds than any other African nation per year.
• In 1910, South Africa became an independent nation of Great Britain.
South African Conflict
• Much of the conflict during colonization was between the British and the original settlers of Dutch, Germany, and French.
Interactive Notebook Question
• What resource was discovered in South Africa that brought even more settlers to the area?
• Apartheid— government sponsored racial separation
• South Africa declared itself a republic in 1961 and cut all ties with the United Kingdom, which strongly objected to the country's racist policies.
• For the next three decades, a white supremacist group would rule over the majority of black South Africans.
• In 1960, 70 black protesters were killed during a peaceful demonstration
• The African National Congress (ANC)-major antiapartheid was banned that year, and in 1964…
• The ANC leader Nelson Mandela was imprisoned for 27 years.
F.W. de Klerk
• F. W. de Klerk (president of South Africa) removed the ban on the ANC and released its leader, Nelson Mandela, after 27 years of imprisonment.
• Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
• The 1994 election, the country's first multiracial one, resulted in a massive victory for Mandela and his ANC and the end of Apartheid.
Think, Pair, Discuss
• What role did Nelson Mandela and F.W. De Klerk play in ending the Apartheid laws in South Africa?
• Another key player in the anti-apartheid movement
• Bishop Desmond Tutu (catholic). • He worked with foreign governments to bring pressure
against the government of South Africa to bring an end to the racial segregation.
• He as later awarded the Nobel Peace Prize• In 1999, Thabo Mbeki was elected
president.• . South Africa, the country with the
highest number of HIV-positive people in the world (6.5 million in 2005), has been hampered in fighting the epidemic by its president's highly controversial views.
• Mbeki has denied the link between HIV and AIDS and claimed that the West has blown up the epidemic to boost drug profits.
• Many have condemned Mbeki's stance. • In 2006, 60 international scientists called
the government's policies “disastrous and pseudo-scientific.”
Interactive Notebook Questions(Left hand side, pick one)
• What was Apartheid?
• Can black South African’s vote now?
• Can black South African’s run for political office now?
Johannesburg•The largest and most populous city in South Africa is Johannesburg. (NOT THE CAPITAL)
•Johannesburg is the source of gold and diamond trade,
• South Africa is the only country in the world with three capital cities: Cape Town, the largest of the three, is the legislative capital; Pretoria is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein is the judicial capital. South Africa has a bicameral parliament.
• Unitary Republic, Parliamentary Democracy.
• South Africa is a middle-income country • abundant supply of resources, well-developed financial,
legal, communications, energy, and transport sectors, and a modern infrastructure supporting an efficient distribution of goods to major urban centers.
• South Africa is ranked 20th in the world in terms of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) as of 2007.
• the vast majority of South Africans are poor.• Other problems are crime, corruption, and
South African Economy
• The economy is mixed with some businesses state-owned while others are controlled by private individuals. Moving closer to the market side of the continuum.
• What to produce?– Private sector-mining, agriculture,
services, and manufacturing– Government Sector-Due to the
inequities of apartheid, the government still provides many people with housing, business development, education, and healthcare.
Charlize and Nelson Mandela
Dave Matthews Band
Trade Barriers (Review)
• A trade barrier is a general term that describes any government policy or regulation that restricts international trade. The barriers can take many forms, including:
• Quotas • Tariffs • Embargo • Economists agree that trade barriers are detrimental• decreases overall economic effectiveness
On the Left Side of your notebook, match the Trade Barrier with the following:
A. A tax on goods when they cross a national border. B. A type of trade restriction that sets a physical
limit on the quantity of a good that can be imported into a country in a given period of time.
C. The prohibition of trade with a certain country, in order to isolate it and to put its government into a difficult internal situation.
Describe the ways governments distribute
power• Unitary- a form of government in which power is held by
one central authority.• Confederation-voluntary associations of independent
states that, to secure some common purpose, agree to certain limitations on their freedom of action and establish some joint machinery of consultation or deliberation.
• Federal-a form of government in which power is divided between one central and several regional authorities.
• Which one is South Africa today???? Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).
Citizen participation in government (Left Side)
• Autocratic-government in which one person possesses unlimited power and the citizen has little if any role in the government.
• Oligarchic-Government by the few, sometimes a government in which a small group exercises control especially for corrupt and selfish purposes. The citizen has very limited role.
• Democratic-Government in which the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly.
• Which one is South Africa today????• Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).
Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments
(Left Side)• Parliamentary-system of government having the
real executive power vested in a cabinet composed of members of the legislature who are individually and collectively responsible to the legislature. May have a Prime Minister elected by the legislature.
• Presidential-a system of government in which the president is constitutionally independent of the legislature.
• Which one does South Africa have today????
• Write your answer in your Notes (Left Side).
Learning Log-South Africa (Nelson Mandela)
Write a summary explaining who Nelson Mandela was, why he was important to the end of Apartheid, and how is efforts have changed the life of Black South Africans.
Bibliography• History of South Africa, BBC News.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index_section12.shtml. November 23, 2007
• South Africa. Fact Monster. http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0107983.html. November 23, 2007
• Geography of South Africa. http://www.geographia.com/south-africa/
• Naidoo, B. Journey to Jo’burg. http://teachers.eusd.k12.ca.us/jleff/LitUnits/Journey%20to%20Jo'Burg.htm November 23, 2007