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Female Reproductive System Dr Asma Jabeen

Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

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Page 1: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Female Reproductive System

Dr Asma Jabeen

Page 2: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Learning Objectives

By the end of lecture, the students will be able to:

• Describe the physiologic anatomy of the female female reproductive system

• Describe the female hormonal system• Discuss the functions of female reproductive

hormones• Discuss the steps of oogenesis.

Page 3: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

PHYSIOLOGIC ANATOMY OF THE

FEMALE SEXUAL ORGANS

Page 4: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of
Page 5: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

FEMALE HORMONAL SYSTEM

1. Gonadotropin- releasing hormone

(GnRH) released from hypothalamus

2. FSH and LH secreted in response to GnRH from anterior pituitary

3. Estrogens and Progesterone secreted from the ovaries

Page 6: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)

➢ decapeptide➢Release primarily in the mediobasal

hypothalamus, especially in arcuate nuclei. ➢ Some from preoptic nucleus of anterior

hypothalamus.➢ released in pulses lasting 5-25min every

1-2 hrs

Page 7: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

ESTROGENS

Secretion:Non-pregnant female → Secreted mainlyfrom granulosa cells of ovaries, corpusluteum and minute amounts secreted by adrenal cortices

Pregnant female → Tremendous quantitiessecreted by placenta along with ovaries

Page 8: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

• ß-estradiol• Estrone• Estriol

Types:

Synthesis:➢ Synthesized in ovaries mainly from

cholesterol but to a less extent from acetyl-Coenzyme A.➢ Synthesis depends upon enzyme

AROMATASE.

Page 9: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Production of estrogen by granulosa cellsUnder the effect of FSH & LH

Page 10: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Transport:➢ Both estrogens and progesterone are

transported mainly bound to plasma albumin and globulins.➢ 2% of estradiol and progesterone is free,

rest is bound to protein. ➢ Binding is loose so that hormones are

released to tissues over a period of 30 min .

Page 11: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Estrogen Degradation:▪ The liver conjugates the estrogen to form glucuronides and sulphates

• 1/5th of it excreted in bile• Remainder excreted in urine▪ Liver also converts potent estrogen to totally impotent estrogen, estriol.

Hyperestrinism occurs in liver failure

causing increase in activity of estrogens

in the body.

Page 12: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Functions of Estrogens

Primary function is to cause cellularproliferation and growth of the tissues of Sex organs

and tissues related to reproduction .

Effect on uterus and external sex organs:➢ level increases 20 folds at puberty (GnRH)➢ Ovaries, fallopian tubes ,uterus and vagina increase several times in size

Page 13: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

➢ Vagina → Epithelium changes from cuboidal to stratified type → increasedresistance

Uterus → marked proliferation of endometrial stroma, greatly increased development of endometrial glands → to provide nutrition to implanted ovum ▪ Estrogen increase uterine muscle and its content of contractile proteins.▪ Muscle becomes more active and excitable → ↑ frequency of AP

Page 14: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on Fallopian tubes:

➢ The glandular tissues of mucosal lining proliferate➢ The number of ciliated epithelial cells increase➢ The activity of cilia is enhanced

Page 15: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on the Breasts:➢ Development of stromal tissues of breasts➢ Growth of an extensive ductile system➢ Deposition of fats

Effect on the Skeleton:➢ Stimulation of Osteoprotegerin –

osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factorInhibition of osteoclastic activity → stimulating bone growth → rapid increase in height for several years after puberty➢ Uniting of epiphyses with shafts of long

bones

Page 16: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Osteoporosis of bones caused by EstrogenDeficiency in old age:

▪ Increased osteoclastic activity in bones▪ Decreased bone matrix▪ Decreased deposition of calcium and

phosphate ↓

Osteoporosis with weakness and fractures of bones

Page 17: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on Protein deposition:Estrogen causes▪ Increased protein deposition▪ Positive nitrogen balance▪ Growth promoting effects on sexual organs, bones and few other tissues

Page 18: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on body metabolism :Estrogen increases the whole body

metabolic rate (1/3rd as much as male sexhormone)

Effect on Fat deposition:Causes increased fat deposition →Characteristic

female contour

Page 19: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on hair distribution:No great effect on hair distribution

but hair growth occur in pubic and axillary regions after puberty.

Effect on Skin: ➢ Soft and smooth skin➢ ↑ vascular skin → ↑warmth,↑ bleeding

from cut surface

Page 20: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on Electrolyte balance:

▪ Chemically similar to adrenocortical hormones▪ Cause sodium and water retention

specially in pregnancy

Effect on blood cholesterol:Estrogens have significant plasma

cholesterol lowering action.

Page 21: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Progesterone

❑ In normal non-pregnant female ,secreted in significant amounts only during the later half of ovarian cycle by corpus luteum

❑ Large amounts are secreted from Placenta in pregnancy, starting from 4th month.

Page 22: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Functions of Progesterone

Effect on the Uterus:❑ Promote secretory changes in the uterine

endometrium during the later half of the monthly female sexual cycle, preparing it for implantation.

❑ It decreases the frequency and intensityof uterine contractions.

Page 23: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on the Fallopian tubes:

It increases the secretions by the mucosal lining of the fallopian tubes, necessary for nutrition of the fertilized, dividing ovum as it traverses the tubes before implantation.

Page 24: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Effect on Breasts:

❑ Progesterone promotes the developmentof the lobules and alveoli of the breast.alveoli become enlarged ,secretory .

❑ Cause increased fluid in subcutaneous tissue → swelling of breast

Page 25: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Relaxin:

It is a polypeptide hormone produced inthe corpus luteum, uterus, placenta and mammary glands in women and in prostate gland in men.

Functions:

▪ In non-pregnant woman, it is found in corpus luteum and endometrium in secretory phase. Function not known.

Page 26: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

▪ In pregnant woman, it relaxes the pubic symphysis and other pelvic joints.▪ It softens and dilates the uterine cervix thus facilitates delivery.▪ It inhibits uterine contractions and play role in development of mammary glands.▪ In men, found in semen, helps maintain sperm motility and helps in penetration of ovum.

Page 27: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

Oogenesis

Page 28: Female Reproductive System · female reproductive system • Describe the female hormonal system • Discuss the functions of female reproductive hormones • Discuss the steps of

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