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SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY JeppiarNagar ,Chennai 600 019

DESIGN PROJECT-REPORTNAME OF THE STUDENTS : SHYAM SUNDAR. S SUNIL ANTONY ROY SHEIK HUSSAIN SHEIK HASAN KEERTHIVAASAN REGISTER NO 2926191 2926190 2926189 NAME OF THE PROJECT: DESIGN OF 200 SEATER CIVIL PASSENGER AIRCRAFT

DEPARTMENT

: AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

Certified That Is a Bonafide Project Report Carried Out On DESIGN OF 200 SEATER CIVIL PASSENGER AIRCRAFT BY SHYAM SUNDAR. S SUNIL ANTONY ROY SHEIK HUSSAIN SHEIK HASAN KEERTHIVAASAN

of VII Semester AERONAUTICAL (B.E) during the year 2012-2013 STAFF MEMBER INCHARGE : INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER HEAD OF DEPARTMENT : : : (H.O.D)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to extend our heart filled thanks to Prof. BSM AUGUSTINE (HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT) for giving us his able support and encouragement. At this point of time we must emphasis on the point that this design Project would not have been possible without the highly informative and Valuable guidance by Mr.Selvakumar, whose vast knowledge and experience Has made us go about this project with great ease. We take great pleasure In extending our gratitude to him. It is worth mentioning about my team mates, friends and colleagues of the Aeronautical department, for extending their kind help whenever the Necessity arose. Thank you one and all.

ABSTRACT Aircraft come into being for a number of reasons .New aircrafts may be introduced because of new technology or new requirements. Aircrafts were put to use in carrying Passengers. In the mid 1940s aircraft manufacturers were designing and building Passenger aircraft. The statics prove that by 2020 there will be a huge demand of CIVIL PASSENGER aircraft. This high demand for Passenger aircraft is the reason that lead to the innovative concept of designing a next generation Passenger aircraft. The following project aims at providing the whole design aspects of 200 seater Passenger aircraft.

CONTENTEx.No Name of the experiment

1

Introduction

2

Design Cycle

3

Aircraft Specifications

4

Characteristics Graph Plots

5

Overall Weight Estimation of Aircraft

6

Thrust Calculation

7

Airfoil Selection

8

Wing Selection

9

Drag and Lift Estimation

10

Performance Characteristics Tail Design and Control surface Sizing

11

Structural Analysis

12

Three Views of Aircraft

13

Design Summary

14

Conclusion

15

Bibliography

ABBREVIATIONS

A.R B C

C CD CL D E E G L

M R Re R/C S T

Density Of Air Dynamic Viscosity Tapered Ratio Turning Angle Gliding Angle Aspect Ratio Wing Span Chord Of The Airfoil Chord At Root Chord At Tip Mean Aerodynamic Chord Drag Coefficient Specific Fuel Consumption Lift Coefficient Drag Endurance Oswald Efficiency Acceleration Due To Gravity Lift Lift To Drag Ratio At Loiter Lift To Drag Ratio At Cruise Mach Number Of Aircraft Range Radius Of Turn Reynolds Number Rate Of Climb Wing Area Thrust Velocity At Cruise Velocity At Stall

W/S

Crew Weight Empty Weight Of Aircraft Weight Of Fuel Payload Of Aircraft Overall Weight Of Aircraft Wing Loading

1. INTRODUCTION MILITARY TRANSPORT-HISTORY Aircraft were put to use carrying cargo in the form of air mail as early as 1911. The earliest "true" cargo aircraft is arguably the World War II German design, the AradoAr 232. Most other forces used freighter versions of airliners in the cargo role as well, most notably the C-47 Skytrain version of the Douglas DC-3, which served with practically every allied nation. . Post war Europe also served to play a major role in the development of the modern air cargo and air freight industry during what became known as the "Cold War. In the years following the war era a number of new custom-built cargo aircraft were introduced, often including some "experimental" features. For instance, the US's C-82 Packet featured a removable cargo area, while the C-123 Provider introduced the now-common upswept tail with a drop-down loading and unloading ramp. The Military Air Transport Service (MATS) was activated under United States Air Force Major General William H. Tunner, in order to harness interservice efforts more efficiently. It was an amalgamation of Navy and Army air transport commands, jointly placed by the Department of Defense under the control of the newly created United States Air Force (USAF) as what is known as today today as a Unified Combatant Command. During World War II, the Army Air Force's needs were looked after by the Air Transport Command which focused on transportation of troops and supplies, also organized by Tunner. With the end of World War II, the United States Army Air Force Air Transport Command found itself in limbo. Senior USAAF authorities considered ATC to be a wartime necessity that was no longer needed, and expected its civilian personnel, including former airline pilots, to return to their peacetime occupations. The DOD believed it should have its own air transport service and decided that ATC should become the Military Air Transport Service (MATS), supported by the Air Force, even though not listed as a formal military mission. . A detachment of VR-7 was also stationed at Tachikawa Air Base, Japan. Also Air Force pilots flew MATS Navy planes, just as Naval aviators could be found piloting Air Force transport aircraft. It was first published in French by the Institute du Transport Arien in 1998 and received very favorable reviews. There is no aspect of mail or cargo transport by air that has not been thoroughly researched and documented by Allaz, from the

first brief transport of animals by balloon in France in 1783 to the vast global networks of the integrated express carriers in the 21st century. As a true scholar, he fits his narrative into the larger framework of political, military, economic and aviation history. This book should stand for years as the definitive work on the history of air cargo and airmail, and will be of immense value to the academic community, to the air cargo industry, the postal services, and to the general public.

2. DESIGN CYCLE WHAT IS DESIGN? From analytical disciplines such as aerodynamics, structures, etc. An aircraft Designer needs to be well versed in these and many other specialities, but will actually Spends little time in performing such analysis in all but the smallest companies. Instead the designers time is spent in doing something called design, creating the geometric description of the thing to be built.

To the uninitiated design: looks a lot like drafting, finally the designers product is a drawing. However the designers work is mostly mental. The product of design involves a lot of hard work and knowledge by the designer. Design is not just a layout, but also the analytical should be modified to better meet the requirements.

DESIGN PROJECT PROCESS Aircraft design is a compromise between many competing factors and constraints. It is important to recognise these and to understand the influence of each on the aircraft on the aircraft configuration. The process (e.g. mass estimations aerodynamic assessments and performance predictions) involves the coordination of many different specialist departments. Each of these work on the overall design but have a divided responsibility between the effectiveness of the aircraft and the professional objectives of their speciality. It is necessary to understand the way in which each of the main departments Interacts on the definition of the design. In real time those involved in design can never quite agree as to where the design process begins. Design is an iterative effort, as shown in the design wheel Requirements are set by prior design trade studies. Concepts are developed to meet requirements. Design analysis frequently points out toward new concepts and technologies, which can initiate a whole new design effort. However a particular design is begun, all of these activities are equally important in producing a good aircraft concept.

Sizing and Trade Studies

Design Analysis Requirements

Design Concept

DESIGN WHEEL

PHASES OF AIRCRAFT DESIGN Aircraft design can be divided into 3 phase, as 1. Conceptual design 2. Preliminary design 3. Detail design

CONCEPTUAL DESIGN It is a very fluid process. New ideas emerge as design is investigated in ever increasing detail. Each time the latest design is analyzed and sized, it must be redrawn to reflect the new gross weight, fuel weight, wing size, engine size and other changes.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN It commences when the major changes are over. The big question is whether to use a card or an aft tail have been resolved. The configuration arrangement can be expected to remain, although minor revisions may occur. At some point late in preliminary design, even minor changes are stopped when a decision is made to freeze the configuration.

The ultimate objective during preliminary design is to ready the company for the detail design stage, also called full-scale development. Thus the end of the preliminary design usually involves a full-scale development proposal.

DETAIL DESIGN Assuming a favorable decision for entering full-scale development, the detailing phase beings in which the actual pieces to be fabricated are deigned. For example, during conceptual and preliminary desing the wing box will be desinged and analyzed as a whole. During detail desing, that whole will be broken down into

individual ribs, spars, and skins, each of which must be separately desinged and analyzed. The third phase of the desing process (detail design) starts when a decision to build the aircraft has been taken. In this phase, all the detail of