Fire Preventionand Use of Fire Extinguishers
U.S. Fire Statistics 2004 NFPAA Fire Department Responds to a Fire in the U.S. Every 20 Seconds3900 Fatalities (One Every 135 Minutes)17,785 Injuries (One Every 30 Minutes)Home Fires Account for 82% of the Fatalities911 Calls (>2 Million Calls)62% Request for Aid (EMS)9% False Alarms7% Fire-Related
U.S. Fire Statistics 2004 NFPALeading Cause of Non-Home Structured FiresIntentional Fire SettingLeading Cause of Fires in Mercantile Properties or Office Buildings:Lighting or Electrical Distribution Equipment
Potential Fire Hazards at Work Electrical Wiring/Heat Generating AppliancesKitchen AreaStorage and Handling of Flammable/Combustible MaterialsOpen FlamesVehicle Fires
Electrical/Heat Generating EquipmentComputers/PrintersOffice EquipmentLightsAppliancesCoffee MakersToastersMicrowave OvensMug WarmersHeaters - Not Allowed
For Prevention of Electrical/Heat Generating FiresEquipment UL ListedPlug Directly into OutletDo Not Overload Outlets, Power Strips, or Surge ProtectorsOne Power Strip/Surge Protector Should Not Plug into Another Power StripOnly One Power Strip or Surge Protector Per Duplex Outlet Maximum Cord Length for Surge Protectors and Power Strips 6 Feet
For Prevention of Electrical/Heat Generating FiresShut Off Appliances/EquipmentPeriodically Inspect Wiring for WearCare in Using MicrowaveEspecially Popcorn
How a Fire StartsThree ComponentsFuelHeatOxygenNeed All Three to Start a FireFire Extinguishers Remove One or More of the Components
Types of Fire ExtinguishersMost Common Extinguishers:WaterCarbon DioxideMulti-Purpose Dry ChemicalEach Extinguisher has Specific Use(s)
Common Types of FiresClass A - Wood, Paper, Cloth, Plastic, Rubber
Class B - Flammable Liquids, Oil, Gasoline, Grease
Class C - Electrical, Energized Electrical Equipment
Use of Fire ExtinguishersWater ExtinguisherClass A (Wood, Paper, Cloth, Plastics, Rubber)Carbon DioxideClass B (Flammable Liquids) and Class C (Electrical)Multiple Purpose Dry ChemicalClass A, B, & C, orClass B & C Only
Numbers on Fire ExtinguisherFront of the Letter AEquals to the Equivalent Number of Units for 1.25 Gallons of Water2A Equals 2.5 Gallons of Water (2 X 1.25)Front of the Letter BArea in Square Feet That a Non-Expert is Able to Extinguish a Class B Fire 10B Equals 10 Square Feet
How to Use A Fire ExtinguisherSound Fire Alarm/Contact Fire Dept.Identify Safe Evacuation Path Before Approaching the FireDo Not Allow Fire/Smoke to Come Between You & Evacuation ExitSelect Proper Type Fire ExtinguisherDischarge Extinguisher Using P.A.S.S.Back Away From a Fire (May Flare Up)
How to Use A Fire Extinguisher(Continued)Evacuate Immediately If:Extinguisher is Empty & Fire Is Not Out; orFire is Beyond Incipient Stage
P.A.S.S. 1. PULL - Pull the Pin (Breaks the Seal)2. AIM Aim Low, Pointing the Nozzle at the Base of the Flame3. SQUEEZE Squeeze the handle to release the extinguishing agent4. SWEEP Sweep from Side to Side at Base of Fire Until It Appears to Be Out
Decision to Use ExtinguisherFeel Comfortable?SmallContained (Such as a Waste Basket)Do Not Use ExtinguisherFlames Have SpreadSolventsSmoke, Products of CombustionUncontained, Fire and/or Heat/Smoke Block Evacuation Path
Fire Emergency ProceduresFire Alarm Pull Stations, Typically Located:Elevator Lobby Area; and/or Near the Emergency Exit Doors Leading to the StairwellsCall 9-911, Then Contact Security79790 ( for 1111 Franklin Street)Warn Others in Immediate AreaUse Fire Extinguisher Only if Its a Small Fire and Safe to Do So
Fire Emergency Building EvacuationWill Cover at Future Safety MeetingEvacuation Plans: Building SpecificNeed Floor Warden Participation
Typical Extinguisher/Fire Pull Station Locations FireExtinguisher
Fire AlarmPull Station
Fire Prevention TripsMinimize Paper Accumulation in Offices, Storage AreasElectrical Cords in Good ConditionUse Surge ProtectorsElectrical Circuits Not Overloaded
Turn Off Coffee Pots, Cup Warmers, Computers, Copiers, and Printers at End of DayCare in Using Microwave Ovens
Fire Extinguishers at HomeSame Principles in the UseSelect ABC TypeLocation of Home Fire ExtinguishersKitchen (Not Right Next to Stove)Rating 1A10BCGarage/WorkshopRating 2A10BC
Think Fire SafetyBe About
This months safety training topic is fire prevention and use of a portable fire extinguisher in event of a fire. The fire extinguisher training you will receive here can be used at home in the event of a small fire in your kitchen, garage, or workshop. According to the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), in the United States in the year 2004, a Fire Department responds to a fire every 20 seconds. Of these fires there were 3900 fatalities, which equals to one fire-related fatality every 135 minutes. There were over 17,000 fire-related injuries in 2004, which is equivalent to one fire-related injury every 30 minutes. Home fires account for 82% of the fire-related fatalities in the United States.
In 2004 there were over 2 million calls to 911 operators. Of these calls:62% were requests for Emergency Medical Services (EMS);9% were false alarms calls; and7% of the calls were fire-related calls.The leading cause of non-home structured fires in 2004 were actually intentionally set fires, i.e., arson.
In mercantile properties and office buildings, the leading cause of fires were actually due to lighting or electrical distribution equipment.Here at UCOP potential fire hazards are:Electrical wiring, either from computers, printers, office equipment, or heat generating appliances such as coffee pots, microwave ovens, cup warmers, or toasters. These are typically found in the kitchen areas of the offices. The second potential fire hazard is storage of flammable or combustible materials, such as paper and cardboard boxes, There should not be flammable liquids in our offices. There is gasoline around in the gas tank of the vehicles which are parked in the garage. There should not be any open flames around except for the cooking areas of the caf on the first floor of the buildingThere are vehicles parked garages. At the 1111 Franklin Street location there was a vehicle fire several years ago. Of all the potential fire hazards at UCOP, electrical and heat generating equipment are the most likely sources of creating a fire in an office environment. Every workstation/office theres a computer, a monitor/LCD, and telephone. Depending on the persons job duties, there may also be printers and calculators. People may also bring personal items such as cell phone chargers, PDAs, clocks, and radios. With all these electrical items, we need to be careful not to overload the electrical circuits by plugging in too many items into a single plug. There are also heat generating electrical appliances we commonly find in the kitchen areas coffee makers, toasters, microwave ovens, and mug warmers. Space heaters are not allowed in UCOP buildings due to potential fire hazards. Space heaters can overload the electrical circuit. They can also be knocked over and cause a fire or be left on, unattended overnight and potentially cause a fire. Those are the reasons why space heaters are prohibited as part of the UCOP written fire prevention planHow can we prevent electrical fires? First is to be sure the electrical equipment is UL listed. UL listed means the electrical equipment has been tested by Underwriters Laboratory and was found to meet industry standards a specific type of electrical equipment. Next, if possible, plug the electrical equipment directly into the wall outlet. Power strips are commonly used, but using these strips, we are adding another layer of electrical wiring which can possibly overheat, short circuit, or eventually be subjected to wear and tear. Surge protectors are an exception because these are protectors which are designed to protect valuable electronic equipment from electrical surges which can damage the equipment.Third, is not to overload outlets, power strips and surge protectors with too many electrical plugs. One surge protector should not be plugged into another surge protector. Also, one surge protector per duplex outlet wall plug. The maximum cord length for surge protectors/power strips is 6 feet. Which also means you should not be plugging additional extension cords to the surge protector to add more cord length.Continuing on fire prevention.At the end of the day, we should all make it a habit of shutting off all appliances, coffee pots, mug warmers, computers, printers, and copy machines.
We should all periodically visually inspect the electrical wiring in our work area for signs of wear, frayed wiring, or loose connections. Replace any electrical wiring as soon as signs of wear and deterioration is noted.When using the microwave oven, we need to be careful heating up food items. This is especially true with popcorn. At times people sometimes pop the corn too long which results in the popcorn burning. This could end up catching fire or creating a lot of smoke which could set off the fire sprinklers.
Next we will talk about how a fire starts. In order to start of fire, we need 3 components, heat, oxygen, and fuel. If all three of these components are present, a fire will start. That is why they call this the fire triangle.
To put out a fire, a fire extinguisher is used to remove one or more of the components of the fire triangle.The three most common types of portable fire extinguishers are:1) Water; 2) Carbon dioxide; and 3) The Multi-Purpose Dry Chemical