FIRE & THE FOREST. TERMS Wildfire-the uncontrolled burning of fire Incendiary-the unlawful & intentional setting of fire Debris burning-burning of trash

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FIRE & THE FOREST Slide 2 TERMS Wildfire-the uncontrolled burning of fire Incendiary-the unlawful & intentional setting of fire Debris burning-burning of trash Prevention-any action associated with stopping a wildfire before it is started Slide 3 Pre-suppression-any action associated with being ready in case a wildfire occurs Suppression-any action associated with stopping a wildfire Prescribed burning-the controlled use of fire. Slide 4 Origin-where a fire starts Perimeter-the outmost area of the blaze including the head, flank & rear Relative humidity-the amount of moisture in the air Alidade-an instrument used in locating fires Slide 5 Buildup index-a rating of the cumulative effect of drying since a rain of 1/10 or more; indicative of the intensity with which a fire can burn. Scale 1-100 Spread index-a relative rating of the forward movement of a fire; rated on a scale of 1-100 Slide 6 Wind velocitythe speed of the wind measured in miles per hour Psychrometeran instrument that measures temperature & relative humidity Heavy fuelscontains a high percentage of thick material such as logs, large limb & tree tops Slide 7 Medium fuelscontains light materials such as limbs & tree tops less than 4 in diameter Light fuelsgrass, leaves, small limbs & twigs Duffforest litter & other organic debris in various stages of decomposition on top of the mineral soil Slide 8 Igniteto burn or burst into flames Mortalitydeath or destruction of forests due to fires Fire Seasonthe period of the year which fires are likely to occur Slide 9 Mixing heightheight the smoke mixes with the wind, should be at least 1500 feet Transport wind speedspeed of the wind at mixing height, should be at least 9 mph Slide 10 Effects of Wildfires 1.Destroy or reduce value of standing timber 2.Destroy young seedlings 3. Reduce the growth rate 4. Reduce the water holding capacity of watershed & cause erosion Slide 11 5.Pollute local streams & ponds 6.Kill or injure wildlife as well as the habitat 7.Encourage insects & disease in the stand 8.Can effect local & state economy Slide 12 Causes of Wildfires 65% of fires caused by: 40% escaped debris burning fires 25% woods arson Average size wildfire in the Southeast is 19 acres per fire Ga. Average wildfire is 4.7 acres Slide 13 Requirements for a Fire 1.Fuel-wood or other plant material 2.Oxygen-air is the main supply 3.Heat Source-sparks, lightning, cigarettes A fire is like a 3-legged stool, remove one leg & the fire goes out Slide 14 Types of Forest Fires Ground Fire-fires that burn the organic materials beneath the surface litter of the forest floor Surface Fire-fires that burn surface litter of loose debris on the forest floor & small vegetation Crown Fires-fires that burn from top to top of trees or shrubs Slide 15 Georgia Forestry Fire Laws Criminal Damage to property in the first degree 1.Knowingly & without authority interferes with any property in a manner so as to endanger human life 2.Punishment of not less than 1 or more than 10 years Slide 16 Criminal Damage to property in the second degree 1.Intentionally damages any property of another person without his consent & the damage exceeds $100 2.Punishment of imprisonment of not less than 1 or more than 5 years Slide 17 Criminal Trespass 1.Intentionally damaging property of another without his consent & damage is less than $100 2.Punishment is a misdemeanor Slide 18 Use of fires & ignited objects It shall be unlawful: a.Start or cause a fire on any woodland not ones own or leased without owners permission b.Burn without taking necessary precautions to prevent the escape of the fire c.Cause a fire by discarding any burning object d.Destroy or damage any material or device used in detection or suppression of wildfires Slide 19 Notice of intention to burn Law 1.County forestry unit must be notified of time & location before setting fire to any combustible materials 2.Violation is a misdemeanor 3.Must obtain a permit before burning Slide 20 Fire Behavior Fire is affected by a wide range of conditions 1.Air movement-both horizontal & vertical movement of air as well as wind speed 2.Fire season-for Georgia is fall & spring of the year 3.Topography-slope of an area affects the rate of a fire, generally the steeper the slope the faster the fire Slide 21 Weather conditions that reduce the rate of spread 1.Rain on the fire 2.Wind reversal 3.Increases in relative humidity Slide 22 Types of fuels The two basic fuel types are: Ground fuels-fuels found on the surface of the soil Aerial fuels-fuels include all burnable materials located in the canopies above 6 feet from the ground Slide 23 Fire Control Divided into 2 main headings 1.Prevention-things done to prevent a fire from happening 2.Suppression-things done to stop a fire once it has begun Slide 24 Prevention The most effective & least expensive method of control Prevention Measures include: Clear all fuel back several feet from trash, camp or warming fires Never leave fires unattended Have suppression tools & methods available Keep fires small Slide 25 Avoid burning during dry spells, windy days or when RH is low Maintain fire equipment in safe running condition Extinguish all matches & smokes before discarding Use prescribed fires to reduce or eliminate fuel Slide 26 Methods 1.Be familiar with the property & the best way to get equipment to each area under all conditions 2.Locate firebreaks & keep them maintained Pre-suppression: Preparations made before a fire starts to more effectively control it. Slide 27 3. Know your neighbors & ask them to report you on any unusual smoke in your area 4. Keep your fire fighting equipment in a handy, known location 5. Know how to contact the County Forest Ranger; 478-934-3124 Slide 28 Suppression: action necessary to extinguish a fire after it has started. Basic jobs of fire suppression: 1.Rob the fire of fuel 2.Reduce the fires temperature 3.Cut off the oxygen from the fire. Slide 29 Major parts of a Fire Head: the portion of the fire toward which the air is moving; the fastest moving part of a fire Rear: the portion of the fire which air is moving away; slowest part of a fire Flank: the sides of the fire Slide 30 Methods of attack in suppressing a fire Direct: fighting the fire at the head of the flames. Used when the flames are not too intense & moving slowly. Indirect: Used where heat & rate of spread will not permit a direct attack Slide 31 Additional control methods Mop-up: making sure that all fire & smoking material is out or safe inside the fire breaks. Patrol: Periodic inspections made over the area until the fire is dead out Slide 32 Beneficial Uses of Fire 1.Hazard Reduction-Reducing the forest litter & undergrowth 2.Hardwood Control-Hardwoods under 2 dbh can be controlled with fire. Summer burns give the best results Slide 33 3.Site Preparation-the most economical tool to provide conditions for re-establishment of forests. Reduces competition & provides suitable seedbed. 4.Wildlife Habitat-Reduces predator cover, exposes hidden seeds & produces fresh low browse for wildlife. Slide 34 5.Disease control-Only practical method of controlling Brown Spot Needle Blight. Burns away infected needles without killing the well protected bud. Litter reduction seems to reduce the incidence of Annosus Root Rot. No know control for this disease once established. Slide 35 6.Improved Accessibility- Improves accessibility & visibility for marking & cruising timber. Also helps for harvesting operations. Can improve recreational & aesthetic values. Slide 36 Prescribed (Prescription) Burning The controlled use of fire in the forest to accomplish specific purposes 1.Most economical tool used for cleaning operations in young pine stands Slide 37 2.Can be used for less than $3 per acre. 3.Should only be done by persons trained in its use. Slide 38 Conditions to consider prior to prescribed burning 1.Relative humidity 2.Temperature 3.Wind, velocity & direction 4.Fuel moisture Slide 39 Fuel Conditions Refer to the amount & arrangement of the fuel, along with the desired intensity of the fire. A continuous litter of needles or grass is usually needed Slide 40 On well-stocked pine sites, fuels reach critical levels in about 5 years. Low growing shrubs with pine straw can cause a level of aerial fuels which can create a great level of heat & should be considered when burning Slide 41 Weather Factors Temperature20 to 60 degrees is the ideal range for winter burning; Hardwood control or site prep is often best accomplished in the summer with temperatures of 80 degrees or above. Slide 42 WindSteady at 2-10 mph northerly is best. Steady wind direction & speed are vital for good burning. Relative Humidity30to 50% is the best range. A 20 degree rise in temperature can reduce the RH by half. Slide 43 Rainfallone half to one inch, one week before burning is recommended. For most prescribed burns the upper litter layer should be dry to the touch. Slide 44 Season of the Year Winter burnsoffer the advantage of less stand damage, more predictable weather & steady winds Summer burnsoffer hotter fires to burn more of the rough for seed bed & site preparation Slide 45 Time of Day Day time fires offer better weather conditions. Burns should start about 10 a.m. & stopped so to burn out by night. Night fires have problems with light winds & higher humidity Slide 46 Types of Fires Head fire Backfire Strip Head Fire Flank Fire Slide 47 Head Fire Fires moving in the same direction of the wind. Generate the most heat & travel at the fastest rate. Good fire for site prep fires Slide 48 Backfire Fire moving in the opposite direction to the wind. (Burning into the wind) Steady 4-10 mph wind Generally burn at 100 feet per hour Well suited for sapling size