FM 44-1 1952 Employment of Antiaircraft Artillery

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    AGO 3199C-Apr


    This manual supersedes FM 4-100, 28 June 1943




    United States Government Printing OfficeWashington: 1952

    Aio 3199C'- _


    FM 44-1 is published for the information and guidanceof all concerned.


    OFFICIAL: J. LAWTON COLLINSWM. E. BERGIN Chief of StaffMajor General, USA United States ArmyThe Adjutant General


    Active Army:Tech Svc (1); Admin & Tech Svc Bd (1); AFF(40); AA Comd (10); OS Maj Comd (5); BaseComd (3); MDW (5); Log Comd (2); A (5);CHQ (3); Div (5); Brig 6 (1), 44 (8); Regt 6(1), 44 (3); Bn 6 (1), 44 (3); Co 44 (2); USMA(10); Sch (2), except 6, 44 (50); PMS&T (2),except 44 (10); Mil Dist (3).

    NG: Same as Active Army.ORC: Same as Active Army.For explanation of distribution formula, see SR 310-


    0 iAGO S199C


    Parmgraphs Page

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ------------- _ 1-83 1

    2. MISSION -_______-______--.---- 4, 5 2

    3. TACTICAL ORGANIZATIONSection I. Classification of antiaircraft 6-8 3

    artillery.II. Major antiaircraft artillery 9-14 4


    CHAPTER 4. COMMANDSection I. Artillery commanders _-__--- 15-22 7

    II. Antiaircraft artillery staff --- 23-27 12

    CHAPTER 5. AIR DEFENSESection 1. Introduction ______________-. 28-30 17

    II. Priorities for air defense-_____ 31, 32 18III. Allocation of means--_--____ 33, 34 19IV. Responsibility for determina- 35-39 20

    tion of priorities andallocation of means.

    CHAPTER 6. ORGANIZATION FOR AIR DEFENSESection 1. Introduction -___--_---_-- -_. 40,41 24

    II. Organization for the air de- 42, 43 24fense of the continentalUnited States.

    III. Organization for air defense 44-47 31in theater of operations.

    IV. Command, control, and co- 48-61 83ordination in the combatzone.

    V. Tactical air------------. ___ 2-56 37

    AGO 81990 Ci

  • Paragraphs Page



    Section 1. Introduction-___--_---- ______ 59-64 45II. Tools for defense designs _____ 65-68 48

    III. Simple defense design.______ 69, 70 55IV. Major terrain difficulties--_____ 71, 72 58

    V. Special considerations ---- ____ 73-79 62VI. Fire direction ______________- 80-82 79

    VII. Incidental protection --------. 83-85 80


    Section 1. Introduction -__---__--- -___- 86-90 92II. Tools for analysis and design 91-94 95

    of light AAA defenses.Ili. Defense of a vulnerable area__ 95, 96 101IV. Establishing a defense with 97, 98 105

    major terrain difficulties.V. Special considerations-----_-- 99-105 109

    VI. Fire direction ________-- ____. 106-108 113


    Section 1. Introduction ---------------- 109, 110 116II. Antiaircraft operations 111-120 117

    center (AAOC).III. Antiaircraft artillery 121-126 122

    information service.

    CHAPTER 11. SURFACE MISSION --------- _--_ 127-133 130


    AGO 3199l

  • Paragraphs PageCHAPTER 13. COMMUNICATIONSSection 1. Introduction_ _____ __-------. 137-140 138

    II. Wire and radio communica- 141, 142 142tions.

    CHAPTER 14. SUPPLY AND EVACUATION_ _---- 143-145 144


    Section 1. Introduction -----------.---. 146-149 14711. Reconnaissance by higher 150-152 148

    echelon for air defensemission.

    APPENDIX I. REFERENCES____-------_ ___------ 150

    II. GLOSSARY ___________________ ____--- 152

    III. TABLES _______________-_ - ------- 156

    INDEX ______________________________-.- ___--- - 162

    AGO 8199C

  • FM 44-1C1



    FM 44-1, 16 April 1952, is changed as follows:18. AAA Brigade Commander

    Whether the AAA * * * following specific items:* * * * * * *

    e. Establishment of conditions of readiness andtheir transmission to the fire units.

    * * * * * * *

    E AD


    ,--i I .. . .ILMET wq ( | RADAR O COMM O MTR 0 FOOD AOV WO*ONTO TA


    Figure !. (Superseded.) A type organization of a brigade staff.

    TAGO 20C-July 810489'-54 l


    igure . (Superseded.) A type organizatio o a group staff.

    Figure 2. (Superseded.) A type organization of a group staff.49. Antiaircraft Artillery in the Division Area

    The division commander will determine the mis-sion (air defense or surface) of the AAA which isassigned or attached to the division. He will estab-lish the priorities for the air defense of installationswithin the division area. The division artillerycommander will allocate available AAA basedupon these priorities. Effective air defense * * *of integrated defenses.


    108.1 GeneralThis chapter is concerned with airborne attack,

    guerrilla action and infiltration. For detailed infor-mation concerning these subjects, consult FM 31-15and FM 31-20.2 TAGO 20C

  • 108.2 Airborne CharacteristicsAirborne operations are characterized by speed of

    movement and flexibility in choice of objectives, andare effected through the mediums of surprise andshock action. Attacks of this type are generallyorganized into three phases.

    a. A preparatory period of bombardment whichwill vary as to interval and concentration. Spas-modic bombing may be expected several days beforethe actual attack, while a single concentratedbombardment will often immediately precede thedrop or landing of assault troops. In order to fa-cilitate the element of surprise, these bombardmentsare sometimes omitted entirely.

    b. The initial landing and subsequent reorganiza-tion of airborne troops with the establishment of anairhead as the objective.

    c. A followup period of reinforcement whichusually includes parachute or air-landed units toexploit initial gains and consolidate the originallanding.108.4 Capabilities and Limitations

    Airborne forces, due to their unique methods ofoperation, possess certain distinct capabilities andlimitations. A thorough knowledge of these char-acteristics will assist the rear area defense com-mander in establishing adequate defensive protec-tion for his area of responsibility. The specific capa-bilities and limitations are listed in FM 57-30.

    TAGO 20C 3

  • 108.5 Assault AreasAirborne units may make assault landings either

    directly on an area defended by AAA or in a loca-tion which is in proximity to the AAA defendedzone. The AAA-defended area should be organizedas the center of fixed defenses when intelligence esti-mates indicate the likelihood of an attack directlyon the defended area. Antiaircraft weapons shouldbe situated so as to provide maximum firepower inthe area above the position, and should be furtherprepared to direct continuous fire on enemy para-troopers as they descend to the ground and afterthey have landed. All routes and approaches to thedefended area should be covered by fire from pre-pared firing positions. Special security measuresmust be taken as precautions against airborne land-ings in suitable areas proximate to the defendedposition. Passive defense measures should be uti-lized to render drop zones inaccessible to airbornetroops.

    108.6 Planning Defense Against Airborne AttacksPlans for defense against an airborne attack should

    include the following considerations:a. Intelligence estimates of enemy airborne capa-

    bilities.b. Location of suitable drop and landing zones, and

    their relation to remunerative targets.c. Reconnaissance of surrounding areas to include

    selection of firing sites and available routes to thepositions.

    4 TAGO 20C

  • d. Designation of units which will participate inantiairborne operations for each probable drop andlanding zone.

    e. Survey data for all potential drop and landingzones. Concentration numbers should be assigned inorder to facilitate the firing of medium and heavyAAA into probable drop and landing zones. Con-sult FM 6-40 and FM 6-20 for more detailed in-formation on firing against ground targets.

    f. Establishment of forward positions for lightAAA weapons which will cover probable drop zones.Self-propelled units will be most effective in thisrole.

    g. Detailed rehearsals to determine the adequacy oftactical plans and accompanying logistical support.All available units should participate in these re-hearsals.

    108.7 Conduct of the DefenseAggressive action, characterized by speed and flexi-

    bility on the part of the defender, must be the basisfor the conduct of a successful defense against air-borne attack. Offensive action is necessary to ex-ploit the difficulties an airborne force encounters inits initial landing and subsequent period of reorgani-zation. Although adequate AAA defenses are aprerequisite for successful antiairborne operations,they in themselves offer no promise of defeating anairborne attack unless they are integrated with in-fantry attack on the airhead.

    TAGO 20C 5

  • 108.8 Defense Against Guerrilla Action and Infiltra-tion

    The perimeter defenses discussed in FM 44-2 forlight AAA and FM 44-4 for medium and heavy AAAwill provide antiaircraft artillery units with adequatedefenses against guerrilla action and infiltration.

    108.9 Securitya. Security embraces all measures taken by a com-

    mand to protect itself against harassment, surprise,and observation by the enemy.

    b. It is the responsibility of each unit commanderto provide security against airborne, guerrilla, orsimilar forms of attack.

    6 TAGO 20C



    *_______ ,.AAA GP HO



    - i i I [rI


    L _-_ ____ _ ___ _-__ _ _ ____#_-_I_ _ _ _ ____I



    Figure S2. (Superseded.) AAOC-AAAIS relationship (AAAgroup level).

    APPENDIX IIIIn table III delete the twenty-four 40-mm fire

    units on the 500-yd ring corresponding to a vul-nerable area 5,000 yards in diameter.

    Delete the note.

    TAGO 20C 7

  • NOTES(Added)

    1. One battery is the minimum amount of light AAA thatshould be allocated to the defense of a vulnerable area.

    2. When allocating light AAA for the defense of single vul-nerable areas, no interpolation should be carried out betweenfigures in this table except in cases similar to the situationoutlined in note 3.

    3. In cases of two or more defenses which cannot be in-tegrated and each of which requires more than one batteryfor defense, it is permissible to interpolate within this table.

    Eram ple: To be defended: two widely separated vulner-able areas, each of which has a maximum diameterof 750 yards.

    Light AA available: three batteries.Solution: One and one-half batteries are allocated to the

    defense of each vulnerable area. (It is undesirableto subdivide a battery into units of smaller thanplatoon size.)

    4. In those cases where multiple vulnerable areas in prox-imity to each other are to be defended by light AAA, the in-tegration of their defenses may produce a saving in fire units.However, the fire units so saved should not be removed fromthe integrated defense unless they are sufficient in number tomake up a usable increment which can be deployed in thedefense of another vulnerable area.

    [AG 322 (9 Jun 54)]

    N dTAGO 20C


    M. B. RIDGWAY,General, United States Army,

    OFFICIAL: Chief of Staff.JOHN A. KLEIN,

    Major General, United States Army,The Adjutant General.

    DIsTRIBUTION :Active Army:

    Tee Svc, DA (1) AA Regt (3)Tec Svc Bd (1) FA Regt (1)AFF (25) AA Bn (3)Army AA Comd FABn (1)

    (10) AA Co (2)OS Maj Comd (5) USMA (10)AFFE (50) Gen & Br Svc SchOS Base Comd (3) (2)Log Comd (2) AA Sch (50)MDW (5) FA Sch (50)Armies (5) PMST FA ROTCCorps (3) units (2)Div (5) PMST AA ROTCAA Brig (3) units (2)FA Brig (1) Mil Dist (3)

    NG: Same as Active Army except allowance is one copyto each unit.

    USAR: Same as Active Army except allowance is onecopy to each unit.

    Unless otherwise noted, distribution applies to ConUSand overseas.

    For explanation of abbreviations used, see SR 320-50-1.


  • This manual supersedes FM 4-100, 28 June 1943



    1. PURPOSE AND SCOPEThis manual covers the fundamentals of em-

    ployment of antiaircraft artillery in combat andcontains the organization, characteristics, mis-sions, supply, movement, and tactical employmentof antiaircraft artillery units. The manual is in-tended as a guide for all commanders and staffofficers who are concerned with the employmentof antiaircraft artillery. For the organization,tactics, and techniques of the antiaircraft artillerybattery and battalion, refer to FM 44-2 and FM44-4.

    2. DEFINITIONSSee appendix II for glossary of definitions.

    3. REFERENCESSee appendix I for publications pertaining to

    antiaircraft artillery and allied subjects.

    AGO 3199C



    4. MISSION

    The mission of antiaircraft artillery is to at-tack and destroy hostile targets in the air, on theground, and on the water. This mission is log-ically divided into an air defense mission and asurface mission.


    a. Commanders whose force includes antiair-craft artillery assign it that mission, air defense,or surface, dictated by consideration of the great-est threat to the accomplishment of the over-allmission of the force.

    b. AAA will be so emplaced as best to accom-plish the assigned mission. Whenever possible,without prejudice to the assigned mission, it willbe sited so as to facilitate the performance of othermissions.

    i2 _ _AGO 3199C



    6. CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMFire units of antiaircraft artillery are classified

    according to caliber, weight, and transport.

    7. CALIBER AND WEIGHTAntiaircraft artillery is classified according to

    caliber and weight, as light, medium, and heavy.a. Light Antiaircraft Artillery. Conventional

    antiaircraft artillery pieces, usually under 90-mm, the weight of which in a trailed mount, in-cluding on-carriage fire control, does not exceed20,000 pounds. Self-propelled versions are ratedin the same category as the trailed version.

    b. Medium Antiaircraft Artillery. Conventionalantiaircraft artillery pieces, 90-mm or larger, theweight of which in a trailed mount, excluding on-carriage fire control, does not exceed 40,000pounds.

    c. Heavy Antiaircraft Artillery. Conventionalantiaircraft artillery pieces larger than 90-mm,the weight of which in a trailed mount is greaterthan 40,000 pounds.

    AGO 3199C 3

  • 8. TRANSPORTAntiaircraft artillery is classified according to

    means of transport as towed, self-propelled, andairborne.

    a. Towed Antiaircraft Artillery. AAA weaponsdesigned for movement as trailed loads behindprime movers.

    b. Self-Propelled Antiaircraft Artillery. AAAweapons permanently installed on vehicles whichprovide motive power for the piece. These weap-ons are fired from the vehicle.

    c. Airborne Antiaircraft Artillery. AAA weap-ons specially designed for employment in assaultlandings made from the air.


    9. ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT COMMANDAn Army antiaircraft command now exists

    only in the continental United States. Its majormission is to command all of the AAA forcesallocated to the air defense of the United States;to provide adequate representation of AAA offi-cers on the staff of the commander of the Air De-fense Command (ADC); and to provide antiair-craft artillery defense for vulnerable areas* inthe continental United States in accordance withjointly approved air defense plans. It has sub-ordinate headquarters which perform similarcommand and staff functions in their respectiveareas.

    * Throughout this text where the term, vulnerable area(s) is used, theterm, vulnerable point(s) is included where applicable.

    4 AGO 3199C


    The antiaircraft artillery brigade consists of abrigade headquarters and headquarters batteryand such AAA groups, battalions, operations de-tachments and other units as may be assigned orattached. The purpose of a brigade is to providetactical control and administrative supervision oftwo or more AAA groups.


    The antiaircraft artillery group consists of agroup headquarters and a headquarters batteryand such AAA battalions, operations detachmentsand other units as may be assigned or attached.The purpose of a group is to provide tactical con-trol and administrative supervision of two ormore battalions.


    When one or more battalions are attached toanother battalion, a battalion group is formed.The battalion group headquarters has the samefunction as the AAA group headquarters. For adetailed discussion of a battalion group, see FM6-20.

    13. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY BATTALIONAn antiaircraft artillery battalion consists of

    a battalion headquarters and a headquarters bat-tery and three or four firing batteries. The bat-talion is the basic, tactical administrative unit.AGO 8199C 5


    An antiaircraft defense command normally isestablished for each antiaircraft defended areaby one of the major AAA echelons. However, iftwo or more defended areas are close enough to-gether so that their defenses can be integrated,one antiaircraft defense command will be estab-lished for both areas. This command will exer-cise the necessary direct operational control overall Army AAA elements (and over Navy AAAelements when directed by an appropriate com-mander) involved in the defense of the area.

    6 AGO 81090



    15. GENERALIn armies, corps, and divisions, the senior officer

    in the artillery headquarters or section is the artil-lery commander and functions as the artilleryofficer on the special staff. The senior officer inthe artillery section of an army group or higherheadquarters is designated as the artillery officer.The army, corps, and division artillery command-ers command all artillery (field, antiaircraft,rocket, and guided missile units) retained underarmy, corps, and division control, respectively.These artillery commanders act as advisers totheir respective commanders on artillery matters.

    16. COMMANDER, ARMY ANTIAIRCRAFT COMMANDThe Army antiaircraft commander, for the air

    defense of the continental United States, has thefollowing principal duties:

    a. Serves as commander of the Army units allo-cated for the air defense of the United States.

    b. Serves as the principal adviser to the com-manding general, Air Defense Command on- anti-aircraft matters.

    AGO 3199C 7

  • c. Represents the Chief of Staff, United StatesArmy, at lower than Department of the Armylevel, on all matters pertaining to air defense ofthe United States which are beyond the purviewof the Chief, Army Field Forces (AFF). This in-cludes planning for the air defense of the UnitedStates in coordination with the Air Force andNavy and coordinating broad policy problemsarising therefrom.

    d. Develops detailed plans for the tactical de-ployment of AAA units allocated for the air de-fense of the continental United States, and makesrecommendations for desired changes in the cur-rent plans for the over-all employment of suchunits.

    e. Supports the air defense commander on thebasis of joint agreements between the Departmentof the Army and the Department of the Air Forcepertaining to policies and procedures for jointair defense of the continental United States. The.Army Antiaircraft Command (ARAACOM) willparticipate in the air defense system for the con-tinental United States as the Army component ofa joint force.

    f. In coordination with the Chief, Army FieldForces, maintains close cognizance of the trainingand status of readiness of all AAA units poten-tially available to the Army Antiaircraft Com-mand, and makes recommendations to the Chief,AFF, with reference thereto where appropriateand necessary.

    8 AGO a691C

  • g. Coordinates matters pertaining to the artil-lery support of harbor defenses by AAA unitswith the appropriate agencies of the Navy.


    The commander of each of these regional com-mands will have the following principal duties:

    a. Serve as commander of Army units allocatedto the air defense of his respective area.

    b. Serve as the principal antiaircraft adviser tothe Air Defense Force commander.

    c. Will be responsible for the development ofdetailed plans for the AAA defense of its air de-fense region.

    d. Coordinate with appropriate agencies of theNavy in matters pertaining to the artillery sup-port of harbor defenses by AAA units.

    e. Coordinate with appropriate agencies of theNavy in matters pertaining to the employment ofavailable naval antiaircraft elements in estab-lished AA defended areas.

    f. Through coordination with appropriateArmy commanders, will maintain cognizance ofthe state of training and operation efficiency ofAAA units tentatively designated for its air de-fense region.

    18. AAA BRIGADE COMMANDERWhether the AAA brigade is operating in the

    zone of interior, in the communications zone, in

    AGO 8199C 9

  • the combat zone, or as part of a task force, thebasic duties and responsibilities of the brigadecommander are the same. The brigade commanderis responsible for the tactical and operational con-trol and administrative supervision of all unitsassigned or attached to the brigade. This includesthe following specific items:

    a. Tactical employment and deployment of allunits assigned or attached to the brigade. This in-cludes groups, battalions, operations detachment,and other units.

    b. Establishment and operation of an antiair-craft operations center (AAOC) for each de-fended area.

    c. Issuance of such necessary operational in-structions as are demanded by the situation.

    d. Preparation of plans and standing operatingprocedures (SOP) to guide the fire unit com-manders in the selection of proper targets.

    e. Establishment of conditions of readiness andthe transmission of the alert status to fire units.

    f. Establishment and operation of an antiair-craft artillery information service (AAAIS) foreach defended area.

    g. Supervision of all training of units assignedor attached to the brigade. This includes prepa-ration of training programs, allocation of train-ing resources, administering training tests, andthe correction of training deficiencies.

    h. Supervision of supply and administration.This includes determining that the supply and ad-ministrative support for subordinate units is ade-

    10 AGO 8199C

  • quate and that these units are being properly sup-plied and administered (this does not mean thatthe brigade commander will furnish such supportto subordinate units.)

    i. Issuance of instructions as to the allocationof ammunition when necessary.

    j. Establishment of the necessary liaison withadjacent, higher and lower units of the Army,Navy, and Air Force.

    c. Supervision of the preparation and renditionof reports required by higher headquarters.

    1. When operating with the field army, the sen-ior brigade commander will act as the adviser tothe artillery commander on all AAA matters.

    m. When in an air defense area in which the airforce is responsible for the air defense, he will actas an adviser to the appropriate air defense com-mander on all AAA matters.

    n. Recommendations when appropriate, forrules for identification and recognition, rules forengagement, and the establishment or cancellationof restricted areas.


    When an AAA group is operating independ-ently, the group commander has the same func-tions and responsibilities as the brigade com-mander. When operating under a brigade, thegroup commander will have those functions andresponsibilities as are. directed by the brigadecommander.

    AGO 3199C 11

  • 20. AAA BATTALION GROUP COMMANDERThe AAA battalion group commander is desig-

    nated by the authority establishing the battaliongroup. He will have the same functions and re-sponsibilities as the group commander in additionto commanding his own battalion.

    21. AAA BATTALION COMMANDERThe battalion commander is responsible for the

    administration and tactical employment of thebattalion. He has such other functions and re-sponsibilities as may be directed by the group orbrigade commander when the battalion is assignedor attached to one of these echelons (FM's 44-2and 44-4).

    22. AA DEFENSE COMMANDER (AADC)For each AA defended area (s) there will be an

    AA defense command. It will be commanded byan AA defense commander (see par. 14). Thiscommander is the senior (or designated) AAAofficer present. As AA defense commander he ex-ercises direct operational control over all ArmyAAA elements (and over Navy AAA elementswhen directed by an appropriate commander) inthe defense.


    23. GENERALThe staff of an antiaircraft artillery commander

    will consist of those officers authorized under ap-

    12 AGO 3199C

  • propriate tables of organization and equipmentor tables of distribution. The duties of each staffofficer are in general as set forth in FM 101-5.Exceptions and amplification of duties are dis-cussed below. For a type organization of a bri-gade and group staff, see figures 1 and 2.


    The executive officer of an AAA staff performsthe duties as set forth in FM 101-5 for the Chiefof Staff. The war room referred to in the list ofduties is the AAOC.

    25. INTELLIGENCE OFFICER (S2)The intelligence officer performs the duties as

    set forth in FM 101-5. These duties will include;in coordination with the S3, the establishment andoperation of the Antiaircraft Artillery Informa-tion Service; the training of officers and men intarget recognition; and, in coordination with thecommunications officer, he will keep units of thecommand informed on recognition signals.


    The duties of the antiaircraft artillery radarofficer are as follows:

    a. Advises the commander and staff on all radarmatters.

    b. Advises and aids the S3 in organizing andsupervising radar training programs.

    AGO 3199C 13

  • 0DI(O1 0 00

    0 , I- I- T

    0 0 ~ ~ ~ 0


    14 AGO W144 4

    V) rO~~O

    o2 0>~~~~m~~~~~~~~~~~


    0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ( I- I- .0I

    '14~~~~ 4O *1-,

  • 00 0o~~~~

    4 UJ~0


    (a (a ~ ~ ~oo

    0 000

    w0 Z

    4 4



    0 1a.0 l Iila Y D~~~~~~~~(

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    0 4i

    -,I (a04 (a

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    AGO SlOOC 15

  • c. Submits necessary reports and keeps perti-nent records.

    d. Supervises radar maintenance.e. Provides liaison on radar matters with

    higher headquarters.f. Advises S2 and S3 on AAAIS coverage of

    defense.g. Advises and assists supply officer in procure-

    ment of radar supplies.h. Maintains clutter and coverage diagrams in

    the AAOC.

    27. OTHER STAFF OFFICERSDuties of other antiaircraft artillery staff offi-

    cers are as set forth in FM 101-5.

    16 AGO 8190




    28. GENERALAir defense, as defined by the Joint Chiefs of

    Staff, includes all measures designed to nullifyor reduce the effectiveness of the attack of hostileaircraft or guided missiles after they are airborne.The Joint Chiefs of Staff have allocated a portionof the military resources of the United States toair defense in order that the United States mayprevent hostile air activity from effectively in-terfering with our war efforts or national inter-ests.

    29. ALLOCATIONS OF RESOURCESThe amount of resources allocated to air defense

    will change as the war progresses. Initially, theallocation probably will be large in all categoriesand will increase during the early phases of thewar. But, as superiority over the enemy air forceand missile capabilities is attained, the need forair defense and, consequently, the resources allo-cated will appreciably decrease until at the end ofthe war there will be little, if any, military re-sources allocated for this purpose.

    AGO 3199C 17

  • 30. MEANS OF DEFENSEa. The following means are available for air de-

    fense:(1) Active-Direct defensive action taken to

    destroy or reduce the.effectiveness of anenemy air attack. Active air defense in-cludes such measures as the use of fighteraircraft, antiaircraft artillery, electroniccountermeasures, and ground (ship) -to-air guided missiles.

    (2) Passive-All measures, other than ac-tive defense, taken to minimize the ef-fects of hostile air action. These includethe use of cover, concealment, camou-flage, and dispersion.

    b. In order to reduce the commitment of mili-tary forces to air defense missions, maximum useof passive measures and nonmilitary personnelmust be made. In certain vulnerable areas bothin the zone of interior and the theaters of opera-tions, there will be an allocation of interceptoraircraft for general air defense of the area. Atcertain vulnerable areas in the continental UnitedStates and theaters of operations, AAA will beprovided for local air defenses. Because of itslimited availability AAA will be assigned for pro-tection of only the most vital vulnerable areas.


    31. GENERALAs stated above, usually there will be insuffi-

    cient means to carry out air defense of all vital

    18 AGO 3199C

  • areas. It is therefore necessary to determine pri-orities for air defense and allocate means to vitalareas both in the continental United States andoverseas theaters. The determination of the pri-orities and allocation of means is a continuousprocess.

    32. CRITERIAThe following are the basic criteria iii determin-

    ing priorities for air defense:a. Selection. Selection of vital areas which are

    most necessary for the accomplishment of theover-all mission.

    b. Assailability. The enemy's ability to hit theparticular installation which is desired to bekept in operation.

    c. Vulnerability. The degree of susceptibilityof a particular installation to damage from a giventype and/or weight of attack by the enemy.

    d. Recuperability. The ease and speed withwhich an installation can be rehabilitated in caseit is damaged or destroyed by enemy attack.

    e. Criticality. A measure of the importance ofan installation in relation to alternate meanswhich will provide the same contribution to themilitary potential.


    33. ALLOCATION CONSIDERATIONSHaving determined the priorities for air de-

    fense, it will next be necessary to allocate the

    AG'd 3199C 19

  • means available. The following general consider-ations affect the employment of interceptor air-craft and antiaircraft units in the air defensemission. Each should be allocated:

    a. In accordance with one plan.b. On the basis of availability.c. To exploit its capabilities and to minimize

    the effect of its limitations in order to contributethe most to the over-all air defense.

    34. ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY ALLOCATIONThe following additional considerations will

    affect the allocation of antiaircraft artillery to thevarious local defenses:

    a. Amount and types of AAA available.b. Other air defense means which are available.c. Priorities established in paragraph 32.d. Enemy tactics and capabilities as compared

    to the nature of the vulnerable area.e. Minimum defense needs.f. Civilian or military morale.g. Importance of the vulnerable area to the

    accomplishment of the mission. It is under thisheading that the determination of how much addi-tional AAA, over and above the minimum defenseneeds, will be allocated to any one vulnerable area.


    35. GENERALa. Only the Joint Chiefs of Staff are in a posi-

    tion to assess the importance of the vulnerable

    20 AGO 8110

  • areas in the continental United States and therequirements in the various theaters. Therefore,only the Joint Chiefs of Staff can make the finaldetermination of priorities and allocation of mili-tary resources to air defense (JAAF BulletinNo. 13, 13 May 48).

    b. In order that the Joint Chiefs may be as-sisted in the determination of priorities and theallocation of resources, they will require a planfor the air defense of the United States and rec-ommendations from theater commanders for thedefense of their respective areas. When thesehave been assessed and matched to the meansavailable, a final allocation of air defense resourceswill be made by the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


    The Chief of Staff, United States Air Force, isresponsible for preparing and submitting the planfor the air defense of the continental United Statesto the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This plan, when ap-proved, will delineate the vital geographical areasin the continental United States to be affordedair defense and will set forth the priorities forsuch defense. It will recommend the allocation ofboth interceptor aircraft and AAA to the variousregions, vulnerable areas, and vulnerable points.When this plan is approved it will form the basisfor the deployment of forces in the air defense ofthe continental United States. In the absence ofsuch an approved plan from the Joint Chiefs ofStaff, the priorities for defense and the alloca-

    AGO 3199C 21

  • tion of AAA will be determined by mutual agree-ment between the Department of the Army andthe Department of the Air Force. In the absenceof such an agreement it may be necessary for theCommanding General, Army Antiaircraft Com-mand to formulate an agreement with the Com-manding General, Air Defense Command, as tothe priorities and allocations of AAA.


    In a theater of operations, final determinationof the priorities for air defense and the allocationof military means thereto will be made by thetheater commander. He will recommend to theJoint Chiefs of Staff the resources necessary andwill plan for the suballocation of those resourcesthat are allocated to the theater. In making atheater air defense plan, the requirements of allservices and the civilian population in the theaterwill have to be considered and consolidated. Inorder to assist the theater commander in his airdefense plan, there may be set up an air defensecommittee to investigate the requests for air de-fense resources of the three military services andthose agencies concerned with civil needs. Thetheater commander will suballocate air defenseresources to the combat and communicationszones.


    The determination of priorities and the alloca-tion of resources in the combat zone is prescribedby the theater commander and usually is a joint22 AGO 8199c

  • responsibility shared equally by the senior Armycommander and the senior tactical Air Force com-mander, and/or the senior Naval commanderpresent. They carry out this responsibility by con-sideration of mutual requirements and the require-ments for air defense of the elements of all serv-ices which may be present in the combat zone.Responsibility for the employment and the alloca-tion of antiaircraft resources rests with the seniorArmy commander. Based upon this determinationAAA is usually allocated to subordinate Armyunits, such as army, corps, and division.

    39. RESPONSIBILITY, COMMUNICATIONS ZONEResponsibility for determining priorities and

    allocation of resources in the communications zonelies with that commander who is responsible forthe air defense of the communications zone. Thiscommander may be appointed by the theater com-mander or the communications zone commanderif such authority has been delegated to him by thetheater commander. He must consider the require-ments for air defense of the three armed servicesand the civilian population. He must give specialconsideration to the air defense requirements ofthose elements most necessary to carry out themission of the forces in the communications zone.

    AGO 8199C 23



    The air defense organization for any area,whether it be in the combat zone, the communica-tions zone, or the continental United States, willbe organized and designed with the objective ofobtaining the maximum results from the air de-fense resources provided. Such an organizationwill require centralized operational control underone commander with all elements of the defensecoordinated. All elements engaged in air defensemust understand the organization, functioning,and capabilities of the other elements.

    41. FLEXIBILITYAAA organizations possess an inherent flexi-

    bility which enables them to be organized in thepattern that will best fit the needs of any specificair defense.


    42. ORGANIZATION(figs. 3 and 5).

    a. General. In order to carry out its responsi-bilities for the air defense of the continental

    24 AGO 8199C

  • United States, the United States Air Force hasestablished the Air Defense Command. This com-mand has a number of subordinate air defenseforces. Under each of these air defense forces area number of Air Divisions (Defense), with eachdivision having an Air Defense Control Center(ADCC) and one or more Air Defense DirectionCenters (ADDC) commonly called Ground Con-trol Intercept (GCI) stations. The Air Division(Defense) (ADD) is the highest air force echelonwhich will exercise operational control of all theelements of air defense in an assigned area. TheADD commander exercises this operational con-trol through his tactical command post, the ADCC.Subordinate ADDC's are provided primarily tocontrol intercepts but in many cases they may bedelegated the functions of the ADCC. The AirDivision (Defense) has assigned to it one AircraftControl and Warning Group. An interceptorwing(s) is assigned to the Air Defense Force andplaced under the operational control of the AirDivision (Defense). The Aircraft Control andWarning Group operates the ADCC, ADDC, andother means of control and warning.

    b. Army AAA Organization (figs. 4 and 5).In order to insure coordination of the AAA withother defense measures the Army has establisheda parallel system of command and control. TheArmy Antiaircraft Command was established tocommand all of the AAA forces allocated to theair defense of the United States and to provideadequate representation of AAA officers on thestaff of the commanding general, Air Defense

    AGO 3199C 25

  • -J


    a Z~~~~~~~~~~~~~z F4 (n r4

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    6 AGO 819i 9W W ~ ~~~W

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  • Command. Subordinate regional Army antiair-craft commands have been established to parallelthe air defense forces. Assigned or attached tothese regional Army antiaircraft commands willbe brigades, groups, battalions and operationsdetachments. In areas where AAA defenses willbe established, provisions have been made for theAAA commander to augment the staff of the AirDivision (Defense) commander as a principalAA adviser and to provide liaison between theADCC and the AAOC. AA representation will beprovided at the appropriate ADDC to ensure theready exchange of information between the AAOCand the ADDC.


    a. Air Defense Command (ADC) level. Thecommander of the Army Antiaircraft Command(ARAACOM) is directly responsible to the Chiefof Staff, United States Army, except for opera-tional control which will be exercised by the com-mander of the Air Defense Command (ADC), inaccordance with doctrine and procedures approvedby the Joint Chiefs of Staff. In the absence ofsuch doctrines and procedures, operational con-trol will be exercised in accordance with jointagreements between the Department of the Armyand Department of the Air Force. The air de-fense commander will exercise operational controlover all elements of the air defense system. He willexercise this operational control at the ADC-ARAACOM level by:

    'AGO 8199C 27

  • a)

    4 z w~ i

    24 < 0

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    29 AGO 3190C

  • (1) The preparation of integrated plans forthe air defense of the continenltal UnitedStates to include recommendation forallocation of resources to the variousvulnerable areas in the United States.

    (2) The establishment of joint* doctrinesand procedures based upon decisions ofthe Joint Chiefs of Staff and agreementsby the Department of the Army and theDepartment of the Air Force.

    b. Air Defense Force Level. The air defensecommander at the air defense force level will exer-cise operational control by:

    (1) The preparation and execution of de-tailed plans for the air defense of hisrespective area.

    (2) Amplification, if necessary, and promul-gation to subordinate units, of joint doc-trines and procedures as discussed ina(2) above.

    c. Air Division (Defense) (ADD) Level. Theair defense commander at the ADD-Brigade(group, battalion) level will exercise operationalcontrol by:

    (1) Detailing the antiaircraft action status,that is, release fire or hold fire. The nor-mal action status is release fire.

    (2) Establishing SOP's for local areas basedupon jointly agreed rules and procedures.

    * This includes, along with many other items, such things as SOP's,rules of engagement, rules for identification, and definitions such ashostile acts and restricted areas.

    AGO 8199C 29

  • 44ZJ


    ,~0 0)

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  • (3) Prescribing the appropriate status ofalert for each AAA defense.

    d. Tactical Location of AAA. The tactical loca-tion of AAA units at each defended area is a func-tion of the AAA commander.

    e. Logistical and Administrative Support. Con-tinental Army commanders will render logisticaland administrative support to all elements of theArmy Antiaircraft Command as requested by theappropriate echelons within the respective Armyareas.

    f. Joint Air Defense Training. The commanderof the Air Defense Command will be responsiblefor the carrying out of joint air defense trainingand joint air defense exercises and maneuvers.This will be done in accordance with approvedplans, utilizing units of other components of theDepartment of Defense that may be available.


    44. GENERALThe theater commander is responsible for the

    air defense of his respective theater. The type ofair defense organization for any particular areawill depend upon a number of factors. Defenserequirements for the Army, Navy, Air Force, andany other service in the area, plus the civilianpopulation will be considered. The defense ele-ments available, the size and configuration of thetheater, the distance from enemy bases, the type

    AGO 8199C 31

  • and number of vulnerable areas within the theater,the strength, tactics, techniques, and capabilitiesof the enemy air force are all factors that willinfluence the air defense plan of the theater andits organization. The air defense resources allo-cated to the theater will be suballocated to the com-munications zone and the combat zone.


    a. The responsibility for the air defense of thecommunications zone may be delegated to an airdefense commander appointed by the theater com-mander or one appointed by the communicationszone commander if such authority has been givento him by the theater commander. The air defenseplan will consider the requirements of the serv-ices present in the zone and the civilian population.The organizational structure will depend upon theair defense resources available, fighter aircraftand AAA, plus the other factors listed in para-graph 44.

    b. The command and control relationships willdepend upon the defense organization established.It may be patterned after the continental UnitedStates air defense organization, the combat zoneorganization, or a combination of both.


    a. In the combat zone the army commander isresponsible for the air defense of his area. A planis formulated by representatives of the variousservices present in the zone and approved by the

    32 AGO 8199C

  • commander concerned. Based upon this plan AAAunits are usually allocated to subordinate Armyunits such as army, corps, and divisions.

    b. The command and control relationships ofAAA units with army, corps, and division are asdescribed in paragraph 48.

    47. AAA IN DIVISIONEach division (armored, infantry, airborne)

    has one organic light AAA battalion. The lightAAA battalion organic to the infantry and arm-ored divisions contains four self-propelled firingbatteries. The light AAA battalion in the air-borne division contains three airborne firing bat-teries. The AAA battalion organic to the infantry(armored, airborne) division is part of the divi-sion artillery and is commanded by the divisionartillery commander. If an additional battalionis attached to a division, it becomes part of abattalion group, commanded by the commanderof the organic battalion. If the attached AAA in-cludes a group, the organic battalion becomes sub-ordinate to the group, which in turn is subordinateto division artillery.


    48. GENERALAll artillery units, field (including surface-to-

    surface missiles), and antiaircraft (including sur-face-to-air missiles), are under one command. TheAGO 3199C 33

  • army artillery commander commands all artilleryallocated to the army and which has not beenfurther assigned or attached to other commands;likewise, in the corps and division, the artillerycommander commands all artillery assigned orattached to the respective command and not fur-ther assigned or attached to other commands.Normally, tactical fire control of antiaircraft artil-lery units engaged in air defense will be exercisedthrough antiaircraft channels (AAOC to AAOCto fire units). Such delegation of tactical fire con-trol does not relieve the artillery commander ofhis responsibilities and prerogatives of command.Army, corps and division SOP's normally willprovide for the necessary centralized direction ofAAA units engaged in air defense.


    The division commander will determine the mis-sion (air defense or surface) of the AAA whichis assigned or attached to the division. He willestablish the priority for the air defense of theinstallations, within the division area and will de-termine the allocation of his antiaircraft artilleryto these vulnerable areas. Effective air defenserequires the highest degree of coordination and,whenever possible, centralized tactical fire controlof all air defense elements deployed in the corpszone of action (including division areas.) Throughcoordination, integration of defenses in divisionand corps areas can be obtained, resulting in asaving of materiel and providing a stronger over-

    94 AGO 8199C

  • all AA defense. Due to the speeds of modern air-craft, similarity in designs, and time and spacefactors involved, it is desirable, where the tacticalsituation permits, to centralize tactical fire controlof AA air defense elements. A method of obtain-ing this control is through Corps AAOC exercisingtactical fire direction over all AA elements (divi-sion, corps and army) deployed within the divisionand corps areas. Information of aerial activity(friendly and hostile) comes primarily from theTACC or TADC. The corps AAOC establishesliaison with the TACC (TADC) and is normallylocated near this control center. The rapid trans-mission of information of aerial activity is essen-tial in obtaining maximum AA effectivenessagainst hostile aircraft and security for friendlyaircraft. The corps AAOC is equipped and locatedto provide this rapid transmission of aerial ac-tivity down to division level. Even if the situationdictates that the centralized tactical fire controlnoted above is not practical for division AAAunits, the division and other AAOC's still will re-ceive aerial information with the least possibledelay and the division commander will be able tocontrol, accordingly, any divisional weapons whosefires might interfere with friendly aerial activity.When the mission, priority, or allocation of anyAAA unit(s) deployed in an integrated defenseis to be changed, the integrity of established AAdefenses can be maintained by proper coordina-tion and concurrent planning between the com-manders concerned. This will permit the redesignof integrated defenses.

    AGO 3199C 35


    The corps SOP normally will provide for coordi-nated action and centralized control through thesenior AAA commander in the corps exercisingcontrol over all AA elements deployed within thegeographical limits of the corps area and assignedan air defense mission (par. 49). This controldoes not include the assignment of missions (airdefense or ground), the determination of priori-ties for air defense, or the allocation of units whichare assigned or attached to division or army.When the mission, priority, or allocation of anyAA units, deployed in an integrated defense, is tobe changed, the integrity of established AA de-fenses can be maintained by proper coordinationand concurrent planning between the command-ers concerned. The senior AAA commander inthe corps will establish and operate an integratedAAAIS system for the entire corps area.


    The army SOP normally will provide for cen-tralized control through the senior AAA com-mander in the army exercising control of all AAAunits assigned an air defense mission and deployedwithin the geographical limits of the army areain rear of the corps rear boundary. In order toinsure the most effective use of antiaircraft artil-lery deployed for air defense purposes in the armyservice area the senior AA commander in the armywill coordinate the deployment of units to formeffective area defenses, and assignment of primary

    36 AGO 3199C

  • sectors of fire. The senior AAA commander in thearmy will establish and operate an integratedAAAIS system for the army area in rear of thecorps rear boundary.

    Section V. TACTICAL AIR

    52. TACTICAL AIR COMMAND -The tactical air command is organized,

    equipped, and trained to plan and conduct con-tinual day and night operations independently orin conjunction with an army group. It is charac-terized by its flexibility, mobility, and ability tosupport ground forces. It consists of two or moretactical air forces and such additional forces, in-cluding a tactical bomber force, as may be as-signed. Long range planning for the air-groundcampaign is performed by tactical air commandin conjunction with an army group based on thedirective of the theater commander.

    53. TACTICAL AIR FORCEThe tactical air force is organized, equipped,

    and trained to plan and conduct continual day andnight operations in conjunction with a field armyor a task force. It normally consists of four to sixfighter wings, a reconnaissance wing, a tacticalair control system, and such additional forces asmay be required.

    54. TACTICAL AIR OPERATIONS SYSTEMThe tactical air operations system provides a

    tactical air force commander with the organiza-

    AGO 8199C 37

  • tion and equipment required to plan, direct, andcontrol air operations. It is through this systemthat the tactical air force commander is able toachieve centralized control over his forces andintegration of effort between the Air Force andthe field army. The tactical air operations systemconsists of:

    a. The combat operations section at the jointoperations center.

    b. The tactical air control system.c. Air liaison officers.d. An Air Force signal battalion.e. Air units assigned to tactical units.

    55. TACTICAL AIR CONTROL SYSTEMa. The tactical air control group employing its

    organic electronic and communications facilitiesperforms two functions:

    (1) In flight control of aircraft utilized inthe tactical air effort.

    (2) Radar surveillance of the field army-tactical air force area of responsibilityin joint operations.

    b. The tactical air control system consists of:(1) Tactical air control center (TACC). The

    tactical air control center is the focalpoint for aircraft control and warningactivities of the tactical air force. It isan air information, communications, andcontrol center, and has no command func-tions other than those specifically desig-nated. Through this center the tacticalair force commander exercises opera-

    38 AGO 8189C

  • tional control over all elements of thetactical air force.

    (2) Tactical air direction center (TADC).A tactical air direction center is a sub-ordinate air control facility of the tacti-cal air control center from which air con-trol and warning operations within arestricted area are conducted. It is or-ganized and equipped on a small or largescale depending upon its mission. Twoor more tactical air direction centersnormally are located separately withina field army-tactical air force zone ofoperations so as to provide maximumradar and radio control coverage.

    (3) Tactical air control party (TACP). Thetactical air control party is a team spe-cially organized to direct close air sup-port strikes in the vicinity of forwardground elements by visual methods. It isa highly mobile element of the tacticalair control system which vectors air-craft to targets, and provides point-to-point communications with the tacticalair control center or pertinent tacticalair direction centers. It contains a for-ward air controller.

    (4) Tactical air direction post (TADP). Thetactical air direction post is a specializedcontrol element of the tactical air controlsystem. It performs no air warning serv-ice but is used to position friendly air-craft over predetermined target coordi-

    AGO 3199C 39

  • nates, or other geographical locations,under all weather conditions. This facil-ity consists of a very narrow beamedradar with the necessary plotting andcomputer components and is designedfor precision navigation and pin point,all-weather bombing. The tactical airdirection post must be highly mobile toallow movement into new positions ac-cording to the requirement of the tacti-cal air mission.

    56. RELATIONSHIP TO THE ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERYThe ground forces and air forces when employed

    in joint operations function as components of ateam. Close relationship is essential to the ac-complishment of their respective missions. Plan-ning and executing joint operations require closecoordination and liaison in order to be successful.This cooperation and liaison extend through allechelons of the air and ground organization. Co-ordination in air defense is obtained through theestablishment of rules of engagement, rules foridentification, and the establishment of restrictedareas. Minute-to-minute coordination is obtainedby liaison between AAOC and either TACC orTADC. In the combat zone AAA units normallywill be under the operational control of an army'commander. Under certain exceptional circum-stances the tactical air force commander may be.delegated operational control of the antiaircraft;artillery. In such cases he will exercise this con-trol through AAA control channels.

    40 AGO 8199C:



    57. FACTORS AFFECTING AIR DEFENSE MISSIONThere are five major factors which affect the

    accomplishment of the air defense mission of AAAwith the means allocated.

    a. Enemy Tactics, Techniques and Capabilities.The tactics, techniques, and capabilities of theenemy will change from time to time and willdiffer depending upon the location of the vulner-able area with respect to the enemy air bases.Generally, the enemy capabilities for attackingvulnerable areas include bombing attacks at vary-ing levels and dive or glide attacks with rocketsand guided missiles. The extent to which theenemy exercises any or all of these capabilities willbe a determining factor in the siting of AAA.

    b. Capabilities and Limitations of AAA Weap-ons. In planning AAA defense such limitations asrange, dead areas, tracking rates, and the effec-tiveness of all fire units must be taken in account.Also, in planning certain light AAA defenses,the human element must be considered in order toobtain the maximum capabilities of light AAAweapons. The state of training and the physicaland mental well-being of the fire unit crews havea great deal of influence upon the accuracy of fire.

    AGO 2199C 41

  • c. Vulnerable Area. The size, shape, and natureof the vulnerable area will affect the accomplish-ment of the mission. The size of the vulnerablearea will influence the enemy bombing run. Bomb-ing must be more precise for smaller vulnerableareas, and longer bombing runs are required. Onthe other hand, little if any bombing run may berequired to cause considerable damage to a largervulnerable area. The shape of the vulnerable areamay well influence the direction of attack. Forinstance, a long, narrow vulnerable area will nec-essarily canalize the attack if maximum bombingeffectiveness is to be obtained. The nature of thevulnerable area will influence the type of bombschosen by the enemy and thereby tend to dictate,in a large measure, the tactics of the enemy airforce.

    d. Weather and Terrain. Terrain will influenceboth the type and direction of attack by the enemyand also dictate the location of fire unit positionareas. An examination of the vulnerable areamay reveal certain very definite expected avenuesof approach which are clearly dictated by terrainfeatures. Likewise, terrain features may precludethe possibility of employing AAA weapons inoptimum locations. For instance, a large body ofwater or a rugged mountain feature, in or nearthe target, may require a special design for AAAdefense; it may also require an increased numberof fire units or longer range guns to obtain all-around protection of the vulnerable area. In somelocalities, where winds are generally unvaryingin direction and of high velocities, the normal di-

    42 AGO 3199C

  • rection of attack will be downwind, thereby re-quiring that AAA defenses be offset into the wind.Other weather conditions such as extremely highor low temperatures and large amounts of rain-fall may influence the siting of AAA.

    e. Other Air Defense Means. The existence ofother available air defense means such as, AAAin the area, larger numbers of interceptor aircraft,or passive air defense measures will influence boththe amount and disposition of AAA.

    58. DISPOSITION OF FIRE UNITSIn the disposition of AAA fire units, the follow-

    ing six basic considerations, listed in their generalorder of importance, must be kept in mind.

    a. Balanced Defense. In general the enemy iscapable of attacking equally from any directiopand will certainly seek to attack from the direc-tion that is most favorable to him. He will seekto exploit any weakness in the defense; therefore,every effort must be made to attain a balanced de-fense.

    b. Maximum Attrition Rate. The maximumpossible attrition rate must be attained. This re-quires that medium and heavy AAA fire units beplaced as near the optimum gun ring as possible,based on the expected conditions of attack.

    c. Continuity of Engagement. Once engaged,the enemy must be given no relief. He should beengaged continuously from the earliest possiblemoment until the final moment of bomb release.Even though a hostile aircraft is not destroyed,antiaircraft fire may divert him from his mission

    AGO 3199C 43

  • or may cause him to drop his bombs with sucherrors as to miss the most important parts of thevulnerable area. This principle means that thedead area of a medium or heavy AAA batterymust be covered by the fire of at least one of theadjacent batteries. Dead areas of light AAA arecovered by one or more fire units.

    d. Engagement of Targets. The maximum num-ber of targets must be engaged. This requires thatthe fire unit commander select targets which arenot already being engaged by other weapons of thedefense. Engagements should be broken offpromptly and new targets engaged when newtargets offer a greater threat to the defended areaor offer a more vulnerable target to the fire unitconcerned.

    e. Routes of Approach. Cover the most likelyroutes of approach. Often terrain or weather willdictate a certain route of approach for hostile air-craft. When routes of approach can be deter-mined, weapons should be sited to provide greaterstrength in those areas. This must not be done,however, at the expense of weakening other por-tions of the defense below the minimum require-ments.

    f. Selection of Positions. Whenever possible,positions should be so selected that other missionscan be performed from these positions withoutjeopardizing the air defense mission. For exam-ple, when the vulnerable area is on the seacoast,some AAA positions should be selected to carryout both the air defense mission and a seawardsurface mission.

    44 AGO 8199C




    59. GENERALThe following methods, procedures, and dis-

    cussions relative to medium and heavy AAA de-fense designing present the principles involvedin such design. The typical defense designs andanalyses for medium and heavy AAA defenses arebased upon the use of attrition rates. Most com-manders will be presented with the problem ofestablishing antiaircraft defenses with limitedamounts of antiaircraft materiel. Based upon theamount of materiel available and the other factorswhich affect the accomplishment of the mission,it follows that there will be an optimum locationfor the fire units insofar as the distance outwardfrom the vulnerable area is concerned. This op.timum location has been determined empiricallyby a consideration of attrition rates. These fac-tors and optimum locations are contained in AAAplanning factors tables. Tables I and II, appendixIII are the tables now in use. These tables werederived by using appropriate fire unit analyzersand serve as guides for the planning of AAA gun

    AGO 8199C 45

  • defenses. No two defenses will be exactly alike,but each must be hand-tailored, based upon theprevailing conditions under which AAA is to beemployed. These tables will indicate how avail-able materiel can best be employed to exploit itscapabilities and minimize its limitations under thevarying conditions of attack as set forth in thenotes to the table.


    Prior to the establishment of any defense it isnecessary to consider the tactics and capabilitiesof the enemy to determine the speeds, altitudes ofattack, and lengths of bomb run. Since the hostileair force may attack vulnerable areas at varyingspeeds and altitudes, studies were made to deter-mine a basic defense that would provide the great-est over-all effectiveness against these varyingconditions of attack. However, if intelligencesources reveal that the enemy has limited hisattacks as to altitude, speed, or direction of attack,special defenses should be designed as near aspossible to meet the actual and anticipated condi-tions.


    The method of employing medium and heavyAAA in the defense of vulnerable areas will besubstantially the same regardless of whether theinstallation is located in a combat zone or reararea. The same considerations and design pro-cedures will apply. It must be recognized, how-

    46 AGO 8199C

  • ever, that slightly different techniques involved,dependent on such items as rapidity of movementand the nature of the vulnerable area.

    62. FLEXIBILITY OF DEFENSEConstant interpretation and evaluation of the

    enemy's capabilities, techniques, and tactics, mustbe made to determine what shifting of a defenseis necessary if the defense capabilities are to beimproved. Provisions must be made for occupa-tion of alternate positions to deceive the enemy.Even though the vulnerable area may be defendedfor a long period of time by the same unit, thedefense should not be permitted to become dor-mant.

    63. BOMB RELEASE LINEThe attack conditions determine the location of

    the bomb release line. The distance that this bombrelease line is located from the edge of the vulner-able area can be considered as the horizontal rangeof the bomb under the given conditions of attack.There are several factors which can influence thedistance of the bomb release line from the edgeof the objective. The three most important fac-tors are the speed and altitude of the attackingaircraft and the type of bomb used.

    64. DIRECTIONS OF ATTACKA defense must be designed against all direc-

    tions of attack. However, in most instances a de-fense can be analyzed adequately considering only

    AGO 8199C 47

  • 12 different directions of attack (every 300 start-ing at 00).


    65. GENERAL

    In defense designs for medium and heavy AAA,certain tools have been provided to enable com-manders to establish defenses expeditiously andeffectively. These tools were derived from statis-tical analysis of data from extensive experimentalfiring under controlled conditions. Based uponthese data a commander can now place availableAAA materiel for maximum effectiveness againstspecific conditions of attack.


    One of these tools used in planning an AAA de-fense is the planning factors table. The table isbased upon the size of the vulnerable area and themat6riel available. It will furnish the commanderwith optimum gun rings and average index num-bers of a defense. The table is used only as a guidein planning a defense, since each defense must behand-tailored to fit the local conditions. Tables Iand II, appendix III are the 90-mm and 120-mmplanning factors tables now in use.

    67. FIRE UNIT ANALYZER (FUA)a. Another tool which will aid the commander

    in planning a defense is the fire unit analyzer

    48 AGO 8199C

  • (FUA). This is a graphical overlay printed on atransparent material that enables the user to de-sign and analyze any medium or heavy AAAdefense by measuring the relative effectivenessof all fire units in the defense against any selecteddirection of attack. The two categories of fire unitanalyzers currently for issue are:

    (1) The basic analyzer designed for altitudesof attack from 15,000-30,000 feet andspeeds of 200-400 miles per hour, whichis to be used for the design of defensesagainst varying conditions of attack.

    (2) Three special analyzers for altitudes of15,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet and a spe-cial analyzer for the 120-mm fire unit at35,000 feet. These analyzers are to beused in designing defenses against spe-cial conditions of attack.

    Note. The altitudes as indicated above for the basic andspecial analyzers are altitudes measured above fire unitpositions and not above mean sea level.

    b. Within each category there are analyzersfor each different weapon.

    c. The minimum requirement is one set for eachtype gun battalion (90-mm and/or 120-mm) andone set for each type gun, per group, brigade, andhigher AAA headquarters. A basic fire unit an-alyzer is shown in figure 6.

    68. PRESENTING RESULTSFor convenience in presenting the results of the

    analysis of a defense, two forms are provided, therecording form and the effectiveness clock.

    AGO 3199C 49

  • BASIC90-MM ALTITUDE 25,000 FT.


    - m E ., m

    o 0

    oo 0 (,, o -i



    FIRE UNIT ANALYZER M l(90-rmm)

    Figure 6. A fire unit analyzer (basic).

    50 AGO 81990

  • a. Recording Foi',. ~By'dtsing the appropriatefire unit analyzer, the index number contributionof each fire unit in the defense, for each directionof attack, is determined and tabulated on the re-cording form. Each direction of attack columnis totaled to obtain the total contribution of allfire units for each direction of attack. The numberof direction of attack lines which might be con-sidered is not limited. They are put in as desiredby the commander. Figure 7 is a sample recordingform.

    b. Effectiveness Clock. The defense analysisresults are presented graphically by means of apolar coordinate chart, called the effectivenessclock. This clock is graduated in angular incre-ments corresponding to the direction of attacklines, and radially in equally spaced concentriclines. These concentric lines are used to establishan index number scale. The shape of these linescorresponds to the shape of the bomb release line.

    (1) Having chosen an appropriate scale, thetotal index number for each directionof attack line as shown on the recordingform is plotted and these points arejoined with a smooth curve. For vivid-ness of presentation, the area enclosedin this curve should be shaded or cross-hatched.

    (2) The index numbers on each analyzer aredesigned so they may be added to obtainthe average index numbers indicated inthe AAA planning factors table.

    AGO 8199C 51

  • (when filled in) DATE / SEPT/950



    CALIBER 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330

    2 /2. 6.0 /.0 0. 5 4.5 /05 5.0

    3 8.0 2/.52/,. /8.01.0 0.54 7Zo0 /8. /2.0 /3.0C2.01

    5 1_2.01/.0 175 19. Z 0

    6 /0.012 0 2081510.5 .

    7 _ _1.5 11.0/9 a Z5

    B 0.58.02 10 22 /C /.0






    RESTRICTED(when filled in)

    Figure 7. Recording form.

    52 AGO 81990

  • (3) This graphical clock presentation willindicate:

    (a) Relative strength of the defense foreach direction of attack in terms ofrelative index numbers and the bal-ance or lack of balance of a defense.

    OATE / SEP1/50




    33 0 3 0-

    3X m ~~~~~~~0

    2102 \ 150'

    1 80


    Figure 8. Effectiveness clock--balanced defense.

    AGO 3199C 53

  • (b) It will also indicate whether the de-fense achieves the average index num-ber as indicated in the appropriateAAA planning factors table. Figures8 and 9 are examples of effectivenessclocks illustrating a balanced and un-balanced defense.

    DATE I SEP /950,





    ALTITUDE 25.000 FT (from AAA Plonning FoctorsSPEED 300 MPHWEAPONS 90-mmREMARKS NONE

    Figure 9. Efectiveness clock-nbalanced defense.

    54 AGO 3199C


    69. ASSUMED CONDITIONSa. In establishing a simple defense, the follow-

    ing assumptions have been made:(1) Speed of attack; from 200 to 400 miles

    per hour (use 300 mph).(2) Altitude of attack; up to 30,000 feet (use

    25,000 ft).(3) Direction of attack; equally probable

    from any direction.(4) No major terrain difficulties are present.(5) Vulnerable area can be resolved into a

    circle.(6) There is no substantial prevailing wind

    that can be determined in advance.(7) There are no other air defense measures

    which would influence the design of thisdefense.

    b. Should any of these conditions be materiallychanged, it would be necessary then to consider itas a special case or to obtain new planning factors.

    70. PROCEDUREa. Based upon the assumptions listed above, the

    general procedures for the establishment of asimple defense are as follows:

    (1) Secure a suitable map containing thevulnerable area and showing the sur-rounding terrain.

    (2) Resolve the vulnerable area into a circleAGO 3199C 55

  • which approximately circumscribes thearea.

    (3) Place the bomb release line around thevulnerable area (this bomb release linewill be obtained from an appropriate fireunit analyzer).

    (4) Place through the center of the vulner-able area, the direction of attack linesfor every 300 direction of attack linestarting at 0.

    (5) Place the optimum gun ring (OGR)around the vulnerable area (this is ob-tained from appropriate planning factorstable for any particular combination offire units available and the size of thevulnerable area).

    (6) Based upon a map reconnaissance, placefire units on or near the optimum gunring and approximately equally spaced.

    Note. It will not always be possible to stayexactly on the optimum gun ring but deviationtherefrom should be held to a minimum andshould still meet requirements of a suitable posi-tion area.

    (7) Analyze the defense for each directionof attack line by use of the appropriatefire unit analyzer. Tabulate the resultson the appropriate recording form.

    (8) Plot the effectiveness clock based on theabove analysis and check against the in-dicated average index value (this indexvalue for the combination of fire unitsand size of the vulnerable area is ob-tained from planning factors table).

    AGO 31990

  • 8~ 2 '\Ct2


    40 I120

    SCALE IN YAPRS5000 4 3 2 0 5 o000oo

    Figure 10. A completed simple defense.

    (9) Make a ground reconnaissance to selectsuitable position areas as close as pos-sible to those determined by the map re-connaissance.

    AGO 3199( 57

  • (10) Based upon the actual position areasselected, reanalyze the defense and replotthe effectiveness clock. If this analysisindicates that the defense is not ade-quately balanced, successive relocationsof fire unit positions will be necessaryuntil a satisfactory solution is reached.

    b. Figure 10 is an example of a completed sim-ple defense.


    71. GENERAL

    a. The general procedures for a simple defensedesign as outlined above, must be modified forcertain special conditions as they occur in the field.For example, when major terrain difficulties(mountains, wooded areas, shore lines, cities,bodies of water to include rivers, lakes, swamps,and small islands) present themselves, the defensemust be specially designed in order to obtain thenecessary balance and if possible the indicatedstrength.

    b. The assumptions made in paragraph 69a fora simple defense design hold true, except thatmajor terrain difficulties are encountered.72. PROCEDURES, MAJOR TERRAIN DIFFICULTIES

    a. The general procedures for the establish-ment of a defense involving a major terrain diffi-culty are as follows:

    58 AGO 3199C

  • (1) Secure a suitable map containing thevulnerable area and showing the sur-rounding terrain.

    (2) Resolve the vulnerable area into a circlewhich approximately circumscribes thevulnerable area.

    (3) Place the bomb release line around thevulnerable area (this bomb release linewill be obtained from an appropriate fireunit analyzer).

    (4) Place through the center of the vulner-able area, the direction of attack linesfor each 30 direction of attack linestarting at 0.

    (5) Place the optimum gun ring (OGR)around the vulnerable area (this is ob-tained from appropriate planning fac-tors table for any particular combinationof fire units available and the size of thevulnerable area).

    (6) Place the fire unit analyzer in the properposition to analyze one of the directionof attack lines in the area in which theterrain difficulty exists.

    (7) Based on a map reconnaissance andusing the fire unit analyzer values as aguide, place sufficient fire units to obtainthe total index value. Enter these valueson the recording form.

    Note. In selecting positions for fire units, twofactors should be borne in mind: First, fireunits should be spaced so as to result in as nearequal spacing of all fire units in the defense as

    AGO 3199C 59

  • possible. Second, fire units should be placed asnear as possible to the optimum gun ring.

    (8) Place the fire unit analyzer on either ofthe adjacent direction of attack lines.Read and enter the values on the record-ing form of the fire units already placed.

    (9) Compare the total contribution of thereadings in procedure 8 with the indi-cated average index number obtained inprocedure 5. If the total contributionequals or exceeds the indicated averageindex number, no additional fire unit(s)is needed to defend against this directionof attack. If the total contribution is lessthan the indicated average index num-ber, locate a fire unit or units so as togive a reading sufficient to make the totalcontribution for that direction of attackapproximately equal to the indicatedaverage index number.

    Note. Where terrain difficulties present them-selves, it may be impossible to obtain the exactvalue of the indicated average index number;however, the defense should be so designed as toobtain balance even though this may result in areduction from the indicated index number inthe AAA planning factors table. Every effortshould be made to obtain the highest index num-bers possible. Index numbers below 18 indicatea defense which is considered too weak to ob-tain sufficient destruction of hostile aircraft.However such defenses may be necessary andvaluable for morale purposes.

    (10) Continue the processes outlined in (8)and (9) above, until all courses have

    60 AGO 31990



    SCALE IN YARDS5000 4 3 2 1 0 5000 \.

    Figure 11. Completed defense, with a major terraindifficulty.

    been satisfactorily completed. Total thecolumns on the recording form.

    AGO 3199C 61

  • (11) Plot the effectiveness clock.(12) Make a ground reconnaissance to select

    suitable position areas as close as possi-ble to those determined in the map re-connaissance.

    (13) Based on the actual position areas se-lected reanalyze the defense and replotthe effectiveness clock. If the analysisindicates that the defense is not ade-quately balanced, successive relocationsof fire unit positions,will be necessaryuntil a satisfactory solution has beenobtained.

    b. Figure 11 is an example of a completed de-fense with a major terrain difficulty.



    Because of the widespread effect of an atomicexplosion, the size of the vulnerable area mustbe increased if the mission includes defenseagainst atomic attack.

    a. In considering expansion of this area overland, three major factors must be considered:

    (1) Location of critical installations withinthe vulnerable area.

    (2) Type and nature of these critical instal-lations and the surrounding terrain.

    (3) The distance from ground zero at whichthese critical installations will suffer

    62 AGO 3199C

  • severe damage from an atomic explo-sion.

    b. Vulnerable areas located adjacent to largebodies of water may be neutralized effectively byan underwater explosion of an atomic missile de-livered by aircraft, submarine or surface vessel.Under this threat the water area adjacent to thevulnerable area must be considered as part of thevulnerable area and be included in the defensedesign. To determine the size of the vulnerablearea to be protected, Department of Defensepamphlet, "The Effects of Atomic Weapons,"should be consulted. In order to protect this areaeffectively, floating fire units such as light navalvessels may be required. These floating units mustbe integrated in the defense.

    c. This expansion of the vulnerable area willrequire additional materiel to provide the samelevel of defense. Therefore, the decision to expandthe defense rests with the authority responsiblefor the allocation of materiel.


    After a medium or heavy AAA defense has beenestablished it may be found that the enemy willchannelize his attack as to altitude and/or speed,and/or direction. When such special conditionsof attack exist, as opposed to the varying condi-tions for which the defense was designed, the AAAdefense commander should reanalyze the defensebased on this additional information.

    a. When the altitude of attack is known, the fire

    AGO 3199C 63

  • unit analyzer, basic or special, that approximatesthe known altitude is used for this reanalysis to-gether with the appropriate BRL from this an-alyzer. When the speed of attack only is known,the appropriate BRL, taken from the basic fireunit analyzer, is used for this reanalysis. Basedupon this reanalysis, a command decision mustbe made as to the advisability of redesigning thedefense in the light of these known conditions ofattack. The fact that the special conditions ofattack are of the enemy's own choosing or aredictated by the terrain or his own limitationsshould be considered in making such decisions.

    b. When the enemy channelizes his attack as todirection, again a decision must be made by theAAA defense commander. This decision concernsthe advisability of strengthening the defense inthe favored or forced direction of attack. As nopart of a defense can be strengthened without aweakening of some other part, unless additionalmat6riel is allocated, care must be taken that nopart of the defense is weakened below the mini-mum. The enemy may analyze the defense or re-ceive information which would lead him to attackin the weakened sector.

    75. NONCIRCULAR VULNERABLE AREASa. Generally most AAA defended areas can be

    resolved into circles not more than 5,000 yardsin diameter. However, vulnerable areas will occa-sionally be encountered which cannot be economi-cally resolved into a circle because of their sizeand shape. These areas are called noncircular

    64 AGO 3199C

  • vulnerable areas. When planning the defense ofsuch areas, the following procedures will apply.

    (1) For long narrow vulnerable areas (over5,000 yards in length and less than 1,000yards in width) the bomb release lineand optimum gun ring should be placedaround the vulnerable area as an oval(race track) as shown in figure 12. TheBRL distance is measured from the edgeof the vulnerable area. The optimum gunring is measured out a distance of 3,000yards from the center of the vulnerablearea and along its entire length as indi-cated in figure 12.

    (2) For other noncircular vulnerable areasthe BRL is circumscribed by measuringthe BRL distance outward from all edgesof the vulnerable area. The optimum gunring must be determined by analyzing aseries of gun rings until the highest indexnumber is obtained, consistent with thebasic considerations in the dispositionof fire units prescribed in paragraph 58.It is suggested that the BRL be used as astarting point.

    b. The analysis of defense for noncircular vul-nerable areas must, of necessity, be adapted to theparticular shape of the vulnerable area. The anal-ysis of twelve direction of attack lines, 300 apartand converging on a center point, as explained inprior sections, will not be appropriate in mostcases. As principles in analyzing these defenses,the following will generally apply:

    AGO 3199C 65

  • 13ZAlrNV INn 3H.I

    W08. 3DNV.SIa S 18 \SC~VA.0020

    AGO 10

  • (1) The vulnerable area will have two ormore ends or corners that will be re-solved into parts of circles. The defenseof each of these ends or corners will beanalyzed as before for: direction of at-tack lines 30 apart around the portionthat is circular and converging on thecenter of each circle.

    (2) The portion of the defense between theend or corner circles will be analyzedfor direction of attack lines perpendicu-lar to the edge of the vulnerable areaand spaced about 2,000 to 4,000 yardsapart. Figure 13 shows the direction ofattack lines chosen to analyze a long,narrow vulnerable area.

    c. To portray such an analysis geographically,the effectiveness clock must be specially i drawn tosuch a scale as to indicate the shape of the vulner-able area and permit plotting the index numberof each direction of attack line chosen. Figure 14shows an effectiveness clock that would be appro-priate for the long, narrow vulnerable area inFigure 12.

    76. MULTIPLE VULNERABLE AREASa. When two or more vulnerable areas located

    in the same vicinity are to be defended, greaterdefense strength is often obtained by designingintegrated or coordinated defenses. No specialrules can be established for such defenses sincethe size of and the distance between the vulnerableareas will dictate the method used. In general the

    AQO 31P99C 67

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    68 AGO 21990

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  • optimum gun rings for these vulnerable areasmay be one of the following:

    (1) Circular.(2) Oval (race track) (fig. 15).(3) Two or more intersecting circles or mod-

    ified oval (fig. 16).b. To establish the best defense of multiple

    vulnerable areas with the materiel available, aseries of gun rings for each of the three optimumgun ring shapes listed above-should be analyzed.As a guide, the optimum gun ring distance fromthe AAA planning factors table should be selected.In selecting the shape of the optimum gun ringwith which to start, the following general rulescan be considered:

    (1) When two vulnerable points are locatedwithin 5,000 yards of each other, theyshould be defended with an oval optimumgun ring. When the distance betweenvulnerable points is greater than 5,000yards the defense may be establishedusing only one optimum gun ring or twocoordinated optimum gun rings, depend-ing on the distance between vulnerablepoints. If one optimum gun ring can beused it should be