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FM 6-20 Field Artillery Field Manual Tactics and ... Arms/FM6_20_1 · PDF file d w FX 6-20 FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL TACTICS AND TECHNIQUE CHANGES 1 WAR DEPARTMENT, NO. 1 J WASHINGTON,

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  • FM 6-20

    WAR DEPARTMENT

    FIELD ARTILLERY

    FIELD MANUAL

    TACTICS AND TECHENIQUE

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    FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    TACTICS AND TECHNIQUE

    CHANGES 1 WAR DEPARTMENT, NO. 1 J WASHINGTON, January 2, 1941.

    FM 6-20, July 10, 1940, is changed as follows:

    * 82. GENERAL.

    f. The number of available noninterfering radio chan­ nels (frequencies) is the controlling factor in the number of radio sets of any type which may be used in any area. The number of channels needed by the triangular (square) division artillery is as follows:

    (1) Three (eight) frequencies for the division artillery tactical net and (four) for the medium battalion liaison nets.

    (2) Four (four) frequencies for the division artillery air- ground net.

    (3) One (one) frequency for the division artillery anti­ aircraft-antitank warning and control net.

    (4) Eighteen (twenty-six) frequencies for the battalion liaison and battery observer nets distributed as follows: Five to each light battalion and three to each medium battalion.

    g. Paragraphs 89 to 91, inclusive, describe a method of employment of the artillery radio sets. Within the limita­ tions of the equipment and the available frequency chan­ nels, they do not preclude other methods of employment or the establishment of additional nets.

    h. All of the division artillery antitank weapons are concentrated in the antitank battery of the medium bat­ talion(s) and the bulk of the antiaircraft weapons in the antiaircraft-antitank platoons of all battalions. On the march, elements of these weapons are distributed through­ out the column or placed at danger points along the route of march. When the artillery is in position, a proper use of these weapons demands considerable dispersion laterally and

    285898--41

  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    in depth, and in the event of a break-through, a means of quickly concentrating elements not then engaged. Consid­ ering the speed with which modern tanks and airplanes can make an attack, a means of rapid intercommunication be­ tween all antiaircraft-antitank elements is essential. Radio offers the only solution. The radio set thus employed must be capable of instantaneous operation at all times, on the march and in position. Time will not be available to set up the radio or to take it down when it becomes necessary to move.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

    * 89. TACTICAL RADIO NETS (fig. 8).-a. The division ar tillery (brigade) tactical net includes the headquarters sta­ tion (NCS) and the battalion (regimental) stations. This net is placed in operation prior to the installation of the wire system and during its interruption. When not in oper­ ation, the nets should be checked at scheduled intervals to insure their continued functioning. The operators of the radio stations in this net are used to operate the telegraph instruments simplexed on the wire circuits. When the wire circuits are in operation, wire telegraph, not radio, should be used for communication between the headquarters concerned.

    b. The antiaircraft-antitankradio net provides a means of warning, alerting, and controlling all antiaircraft-anti­ tank units of the division artillery. This net includes the division artillery headquarters station, battalion stations, antitank battery of medium battalion(s), and all anti­ aircraft-antitank platoons. Normally, messages having to do with the approach and attack of hostile tanks and air­ planes will be transmitted by voice and ini clear text.

    c. Artillery-infantry intercommunication is obtained when practicable by radio sets of either arm entering the net of the other.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

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  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    V I

    O Square division.

    @ Div Artny

    (D Triangular division.

    FIGuRm 8.-Division artillery tactical nets.

    3

  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    iDv Ardy

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    ® Division artillery antiaircraft-antitank radio net (as applied in triangular division).

    FIGURE 8.-Division artillery tactical nets-Continued.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

    * 90. LIAISON AND FORWARD OBSERVER NETS.-a. Light battalion nets (fig. 9).-(1) Radio sets in the headquarters battery and in each of the firing batteries of the light bat­ talion provide radio communication for liaison officers, bat­ tery and battalion observers, and alternative channels of communication to supplement wire in an area usually swept by hostile small-arms and artillery fire. The sets are suffi­ cient in number to provide a flexibility in their use which will meet most of the tactical requirements of this battalion.

    (2) The sets issued to each battery provide the battery commander with radio communication with his executive prior to the installation of the wire system. They supple­

    4

  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    ment the wire communication between the observation post and the firing battery after the battery is in position. The sets should be used to­

    (a) Provide radio communication for the battery forward observer. The forward observer may be directed to report targets by radio directly to the battalion fire direction center.

    (b) Leapfrog observation posts when the terrain permits. (c) Provide communication between the battery and the

    battalion fire direction center prior to the installation and during interruptions of the battery-battalion wire circuit.

    (3) The sets issued to the battalion headquarters provide­

    (a) The battalion commander with radio communication with the elements of his battalion.

    (b) Radio communication between the liaison officers and the battalion command post, and also between the battery forward observers and the battalion command post (fire direction center).

    (c) Uninterrupted communication with liaison officers and batteries during displacement of the batteries or of the battalion command post.

    b. Medium battalion nets.-(l) The battalion liaison and observer nets include stations at the battalion command post and those with liaison officers and battalion and battery forward observers. The nets are used by liaison officers in requesting reinforcing fires for the light artillery and in reporting the effectiveness thereof, and by forward and flank observers of the battalion in the adjustment and surveillance of fires of the battalion.

    (2) The battery forward observer nets are organized, in general, similar to those of the light battalion. It may be desirable to have the battery forward observers report all targets by radio directly to the battalion fire direction center. In situations where that procedure is desirable, one radio set should be taken from each battery and installed at the battalion fire direction center.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

    5

  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    ,,or fard Observers

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    Solid lines indicate primary use. Broken lines indicate secondary use.

    In general, no attempt should be made to operate more than two

    SCR-194 sets at a time in a single net.

    Five frequencies, A, B, C, D, and E, are assigned to the battalion.

    PicunII 9.-A method of employment of liaison and forward observer

    sets of a light battalion.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

    91. AIR-GROUND RADIO NET (fig. 10.)-a. The air- ground net of the division artillery includes the division artillery headquarters station (NCS) and the battalion stations. The net is organized on a given frequency (W) as a directed net when a single airplane is present or expected, or on a schedule prescribed by the division ar­ tillery headquarters. At all other times the net is silent.

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  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    P±Div Arty CP Observotio&

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    (i) Net showing three airplanes working with division artillery, details as to frequency and assignment having been prearranged.

    May be /1stenY Di;v A'rty CP on any frency,

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    ( Net showing one airplane working with three battalions while another works with the fourth battalion.

    FIGURE 10.-Examples of air-ground radio nets.

    [A. G. 062.11 (12-13-40).] (C 1, Jan. 2, 1941.)

    7

  • FIELD ARTILLERY FIELD MANUAL

    b. If more than one airplane is available, each is assigned to a regiment (square division only), a battalion, or a group of battalions, and a frequency (W, X, Y, or Z) is designated for each airplane. These arrangements are made by the division artillery headquarters prior to the take-off of the airplane. Each airplane then reports directly on the pre­ arranged frequency to the station that will control its mission. It will be unusual to require an airplane to change frequency while in flight; if a change in frequency is necessary, ground stations shift to the frequency of the airplane.

    [A.G.062.11 (12-13-40).] (C1, Jan. 2,1941.)

    * 141. FIRE DIRECTION. * * * * * * *

    d. Control by higher units.-Commanders of higher units exercise general control by allocating reinforcing

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