for goodness sake

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for goodness sake. Understanding and Responding to Challenging and Aggressive Behaviour Dr. Jean Clinton Lois Saunders. 05-042. S. Suomi. 00-053. Non Human Primate Development. Poor Mothering First 6 Months of Life. Increased anxiety and depression as adults. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of for goodness sake

  • forgoodnesssakeUnderstanding and Responding to Challenging and Aggressive Behaviour

    Dr. Jean ClintonLois Saunders

  • S. Suomi05-042

  • 00-053Non Human Primate DevelopmentPoor Mothering First 6 Months of LifeIncreased anxiety and depression as adultsExcessive alcohol consumptionImpulse aggression and violent behaviourFemales tend to be poor mothersHighest risk genetically predisposed to high cortisol levels during development

  • 00-054Poorly Nurtured Rhesus Monkey InfantsBiological ChangesHigh cortisol levels to mild stressChronic deficits in serotonin metabolismDisrupted circadian rhythms for cortisol

  • 04-038Adrenal GlandCycle of StressCortexAmygdalaLocus CoeruleusBrain StemGlucocortocoids (Cortisol)Corticotropin-Releasing HormoneNorepinephrine

  • EmotionalStimulusPITCortisolCortisolCRFACTHAmygdalaHippocampusAdrenalCortexHypothalamusPVN++--LeDoux, Synaptic Self03-002

  • HypothalamusVasopressinPituitary GlandBlood VesselCortisolCortisolKidneyAdrenal GlandCortisolCRHACTHACTHParaventricular NucleusStress Pathway04-023

  • Limbic HPA Pathway - StressCortisol Over Production

    Behaviour, depression, diabetes, malnutrition, cardiovascular disease, memory, immune system, drug and alcohol addiction

    Cortisol Under Production

    Chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, immune system (autoimmune disorders) rheumatoid arthritis, allergies, asthma 05-212

  • Individual differences in stress reactivity of the adult are determined by maternal behaviour during infancyHIGH LGLOW LGDevelopment of Stress ReactivityModest StressReactivity

    Reduced Risk for DiseaseIncreased StressReactivity

    Increased Risk for Heart Disease, Type II Diabetes, Alcoholism, Affective Disorders, Brain Aging, etc.M. Szyf05-056

  • 02-066The Fear ResponseVisual CortexVisual ThalamusAmygdalaScientific AmericanThe Hidden Mind, 2002, Volume 12, Number 1

  • 00-058Cortisol can be bad for the brainHippocampushigh sterol levels cause loss of dendritesand cell deathFrontal brainattention deficits

  • 00-046-1.2-1-0.8-0.6-0.4-0.201020304050Months of Orphanage RearingLog10 Salivary Cortisol*linear trendlineEvening Cortisol Levels Increase withMonths of Orphanage Rearing *

  • Change in Salivary CortisolLOWHIGHSecure Attachment Buffers Cortisol Response to Threatening EventsSecure Attachment

    Insecure AttachmentThe Founders Network Fearful Responses to StimuliGunnar (1996).05-046

  • 02-0500. SESMedium SESHigh SESDevelopment and Cortisol LevelsAgeSalivary Cortisol (ug/dl)

  • Children in Poorer Quality Childcare Show Rises in Cortisol Over the Day 2.01.0-1.00.0Quality of Childcare-0.4- in CortisolDettling (2000).05-047

  • Daycare Quality & Cortisol Levels(Individual Needs) Cortisol (log10)Time of SamplingHigh QualitySatisfactoryUnsatisfactorySims et al. 2005. 05-063

  • Daycare Quality & Cortisol Levels(Treat Equitably) Cortisol (log10)Time of SamplingHigh QualitySatisfactoryUnsatisfactorySims et al. 2005. 05-064

  • 00-045AMNoonPMCortisol Levels in Romanian AdoptedChildren 6 Years Post Adoption10. < 4 months in orphanage Adopted > 8 months in orphanage Canadian Control

  • Dr Megan GunnarSocial Relationships control cortisol levels in infants and young children.Children with secure attachments to their caregivers show stable cortisol levels.The key ingredient to buffering stress is sensitive, responsive, individualized care.Its not separation from parents, but the experience in child care that triggers their stress responses.

  • Research on Quality Treating children with respectDeveloping relationships with familiesEnsuring programmes focus on children feeling safeHutchins and SIMS 2000

  • Research on QualityMeeting the individual needs of childrenEnsuring staff remain in their positions long enough to be able to develop and maintain relationships with children

    All of these dimensions of quality are fundamental to developing and maintaining strong relationships between caregivers and children (Hutchins & Sims, 2000).

  • Perry Preschool Project$17 saved for every $1 invested

  • 04-012Sensing pathways set in early lifeVisionHearingTouchHPA Pathway (stress) set in early life(HPA-Immune Pathway)Hippocampus - MemoryPlasticity sustained throughout lifeAffected by HPA PathwaySummary:Brain Plasticity


    In brain development there are complex pathways between the sensing system and how the brain works. These pathways are dependent upon how well the individual neurons interact with each other through their synaptic junctions. Thus, when you see a snake the optic nerve pathway intersects with the visual thalamus in the centre of the brain which can then signal the amygdala to generate what is often called a fear response. The optic nerve pathway continues on to the visual cortex which can help interpret whether the snake is real or is a stick. With normal brain pathways and function, the signal from the visual cortex can if the signal is a stick shut down the fear response through the amygdala. If the brain develops in an inappropriate manner, there are some things which an individual can sense in a fear response that it is not possible to turn around when other cognitive functions signal that this should not be a fear response. This slide summarizes what we know today about experience-based brain development and the brains plasticity. The development of the sensing neurons occurs during an early sensitive period of brain development. The neurological pathways for stress also have a sensitive period of development in early life. The hippocampus, which plays an important part in memory, has a plasticity that extends throughout life.The expression of genes for neurological development is in different parts of the brain strongly influenced by the stimuli they receive in early life.