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Four Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic DC-DC · PDF file Buck-Boost for Photovoltaic systems is addressed. FSBB Converters present some

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  • Four Switch Buck-Boost Converter for Photovoltaic

    DC-DC Power Applications

    S.Senthilkumar1, R.Venkatesh2, P.Ganga3, G.Vijayakumar4

    1Assistant professor, Department of EEE, AnnapooranaEngg. College, Salem

    2Professor & Head, Department of EEE, AnnapooranaEngg. College, Salem

    3Assistant professor, Department of EEE, AnnapooranaEngg. College, Salem

    4Assistant professor, Department of EEE, AnnapooranaEngg. College, Salem

    [email protected], [email protected],[email protected], [email protected]


    Photovoltaic energy is a wide kind of green energy. Ahigh performance on these systems is

    needed to make the most of energy produced by solar cells. Also, there must be a constant adaptation

    due to the continuous variation of power production. Control techniques for Power Converters like

    the MPPT algorithm (Maximum Power Point Tracking) present very good results on photovoltaic

    chains. Nevertheless, losses on power elements reduce global performance and the voltage/current

    adaptation is not always possible. In this paper, the use of the high efficiency structure Four Switch

    Buck-Boost for Photovoltaic systems is addressed. FSBB Converters present some advantages

    regarding other Power Converter structures: it has few electrical components, output voltage can be

    higher or lower than input voltage, and it presents a non-inverted output voltage as happens with

    others Buck-Boost Converters. A prototype of FSBB has been developed in order to exploit these new

    capabilities for a Photovoltaic DC-DC power application (solar module: 0V to 20V input voltage and

    different resistive loads). The implemented MPPT digital control chooses between a Buck or Boost

    mode, depending on the working conditions. Firstly, an introduction and the FSBB operating mode

    are addressed. Then, the adaptive MPPT control algorithm is detailed. And finally, the experimental

    results and conclusion are presented.

    Index Terms—FSBB(Four Switch Buck-Boost),MPPT(MaximumPowerPointTracking),


    1. Introduction

    FSBB Power Converter is different from other Power Converters because it has two duty cycles to

    be controlled, that is, two freedom degrees. This means that for a same working point, different values

    for both duty cycles can be used. Furthermore, due to its simple Buck-Boost structure, it presents high

    performance and high adaptability to system voltage changes.

    Journal of Information and Computational Science

    Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2019

    ISSN: 1548-7741


    mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected] mailto:[email protected]

  • All these advantages make the FSBB Power Converter suitable for applications where the load

    may be variable and where a high efficiency is required, as the Photovoltaic applications or power

    supply applications [1]. To fully determine the operating mode of this new power structure, a

    theoretical study has been done and compared with experimental results.

    The structure of a FSBB Power Converter is presented in Fig. 1. It has four switches which commute two by two. Both switches couples (D1, /D1 and /D2, D2) are independent:

    Figure 1.Electric schema of the FSBB Power Converter

    The four switches (synchronous structure instead of asynchronous) [2], increase the converter

    efficiency since the commutations are done very quickly compared to natural diode commutations.

    Nevertheless, the control must be done carefully in order to avoid short-circuits on the inductor and

    defective functioning.

    Using the average model [3], the equations system for the power structure shown in Fig. 1 is:

    whereD1 and D2 are the duty cycles, Vin and Vout the input and output voltages respectively, IL the

    inductor current and RL theinductor equivalent resistor, which can be seen as an average of losses

    (function of several parameters depending on the working point).

    Thanks to the state equations presented in (1), the output voltage gain and the current through the

    inductor gain in steady-state for constant duty cycles, (2) and (3), can be calculated (i.e. using Laplace

    Transform and applying the final value theorem):

    If RL tends to zero, the lossless expression for the voltage gain is found:

    Journal of Information and Computational Science

    Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2019

    ISSN: 1548-7741


  • It can be observed how if D2 tends to 0, the FSBB behaves like a Buck Converter and how if D1

    tends to 1, the FSBB behaves like a Boost Converter. Other possibilities for D1 and D2lead to different

    intermediate working modes.

    The two freedom degrees of a FSBB power converter let choose the same working point in too

    many different ways. As it can be deduced thanks to (2), for the same voltage amplification GV,

    different duty cycles can be chosen:

    Or working out D2, two solutions are found:

    but only the negative solution is considered here since the positive one leads to very high currents

    (i.e. if RL tends to 0, D2would be 1 and gains would be infinite).

    Among of all possible duty cycles, it must be chosen those which minimize losses. Because losses

    are proportional to current or square current, the optimum corresponds to the couple of duty cycles

    which minimize current through the converter. For a fixed input and output voltage (Vin and Vout),

    introducing expressions (5) and (6) into (3), an optimum for D1and D2can be found which minimize


    This means that the current is minimized when D1 and D2 are fixed to 1 or 0 respectively. Thus, the

    most interesting working zones are the pure Buck and pure Boost mode, defined as:

    Those working modes are represented graphically in Fig. 3 for different values of RL/R:

    Journal of Information and Computational Science

    Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2019

    ISSN: 1548-7741


  • Figure 3. Voltage Gain versus D1 and D2, on the best configuration.

    As it can be seen, the output voltage can be either bigger or lower than the input voltage (without

    polarity inversion) and the transition between both working modes is smooth since the global

    piecewise function is continuous and derivable:


    A. General Setup

    The photovoltaic application dealt with on this paper is presented in Fig. 4. It can be

    observed how the different elements are connected in order to transfer the maximumpower

    produced by the solar module to the load:

    Figure 4.Electric schema for the photovoltaic application.

    A classic MPPT Algorithm with only one freedom degree to look for the Maximum Power Point

    (MPP) of the solar module, that is, the optimal voltage Vopt and the optimal current Iopt that will be

    adapted to the load [4]. Nevertheless, the adaptation cannot always be done, for example, when the

    input voltage exceeds the output voltage if a Boost Converter is used (i.e. if the optimal voltage Vopt of

    solar modules is higher than the load voltage VCh) and vice-versa for a Buck Converter. This

    adaptation problem can be avoided by using a FSBB Converter, which can work as a Buck or a Boost

    Journal of Information and Computational Science

    Volume 9 Issue 4 - 2019

    ISSN: 1548-7741


  • converter. Furthermore, once the working zones have been fixed, the FSBB becomes a one freedom

    degree converter by measuring the input voltage Vin and the output voltage Vout to calculate the voltage

    gain GV. Like this, the MPPT Algorithm knows whether to work on Buck or Boost mode.

    The system characteristics are: Solar Module that can produce 0V to 20V in function of sunlight

    and temperature (BP585: ISC=5A and VOC=22.1V), and a variable resistive load. So, the FSBB must

    be able to adapt different output voltages and also to change between the Buck and Boost modes if


    B. FSBB Electric Setup and Control Characteristics

    The chosen frequency for all the commutation signals has been fixed to 200 kHz. The FSBB

    control is carried on by a DSPIC30F30. Two couples of complementary PWM signals are generated

    in function of the MPPT control algorithm.

    Attending to the commutation frequency, the elements on the converter have been chosen as

    shown in the next table:


    L 22uH

    RL 0.02Ω

    C 20uF

    To be sure that the commutations on transistors are done properly, four drivers have been used to

    reinforce the PWM control signals. The electric schema built up can be observed in Fig. 5:

    Figure 5. Electric schema of the FSBB Power Converter.

    The extra diodes, placed in parallel to the mosfets are freewheeling diodes. They have two

    advantages regarding the transistor parasite diodes: they commute faster and the drop voltage during

    the conduction mode is smaller.

    Commutation on the four switches must be done carefully since the solar module or the load must

    never be short-circuited. To avoid this problem, a dead time of 30ns has been implemented on


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