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Førebuing/ Forberedelse 22.05.2018 ENG1002 Engelsk fellesfag ENG1003 Engelsk fellesfag Nynorsk/Bokmål

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Nynorsk
Hjelpemiddel På førebuingsdagen er alle hjelpemiddel tillatne, inkludert bruk av
Internett.
På eksamen er alle hjelpemiddel tillatne, bortsett frå Internett og
andre verktøy som kan brukast til kommunikasjon.
For norsk, samisk, finsk som andrespråk og framandspråka er
heller ikkje omsetjingsprogram tillatne.
Når du bruker nettbaserte hjelpemiddel under eksamen, har du
ikkje lov til å kommunisere med andre. Samskriving, chat og andre
måtar å utveksle informasjon med andre er ikkje tillate.
Bruk av kjelder Dersom du bruker kjelder i svaret ditt, skal dei alltid førast opp på
ein slik måte at lesaren kan finne fram til dei.
Du skal føre opp forfattar og fullstendig tittel på både lærebøker og
annan litteratur. Dersom du bruker utskrifter eller sitat frå Internett,
skal du føre opp nøyaktig nettadresse og nedlastingsdato.
Andre opplysningar Førebuingsdagen er obligatorisk skoledag. I førebuingstida kan du
samarbeide med andre, finne informasjon og få rettleiing.
Informasjon om
sentralt gitt skriftleg eksamen. Eksamensrettleiinga finn du på
Bokmål
Hjelpemidler På forberedelsesdagen er alle hjelpemidler tillatt, inkludert bruk av
Internett.
På eksamen er alle hjelpemidler tillatt, bortsett fra Internett og
andre verktøy som kan brukes til kommunikasjon.
For norsk, samisk, finsk som andrespråk og fremmedspråkene er
heller ikke oversettelsesprogrammer tillatt.
Når du bruker nettbaserte hjelpemiddel under eksamen, har du ikke
lov til å kommunisere med andre. Samskriving, chat og andre måter
å utveksle informasjon med andre er ikke tillatt.
Bruk av kilder Hvis du bruker kilder i besvarelsen din, skal disse alltid oppgis på en
slik måte at leseren kan finne fram til dem.
Du skal oppgi forfatter og fullstendig tittel på både lærebøker og
annen litteratur. Hvis du bruker utskrifter eller sitater fra Internett,
skal du oppgi nøyaktig nettadresse og nedlastingsdato.
Andre opplysninger Forberedelsesdagen er obligatorisk skoledag. I forberedelsestiden
kan du samarbeide med andre, finne informasjon og få veiledning.
Informasjon om
sentralt gitt skriftlig eksamen. Eksamensveiledningen finner du på
Winning and losing in the English-speaking world
There are many interpretations of what it means to win and lose. Our ideas about this can
change over time and differ from situation to situation or group to group. While we may at
times feel that we are stuck in a losing situation, opportunities arise, expectations change
and everything can suddenly look quite different. But success can just as easily slip away,
even for those who appear to have come out on top.
In many English-speaking countries, society is more oriented towards competition than
cooperation. This can be seen in sports (particularly for children and young people), as well
as in education, culture, working life, politics and other areas. English-speaking countries
also tend to have considerable social and cultural differences between groups and
individuals.
Competition can often be beneficial as it motivates us to strive for high levels of
performance and to hone our skills. However, it can also demotivate us and lead to a lack
of cooperation and even conflict. Finding the right balance between competition and
cooperation can be challenging.
We hope that these texts will inspire you to explore and discuss ideas about this topic.
Remember to look for information from other sources as well, including what you have
worked with during your English course. Make a note of useful keywords and phrases, and
remember to note down your sources.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 5 av 20
Text 1 How to apply for an apprenticeship By Andrew Fennel
An apprenticeship is a great way to learn a specific trade or profession while earning
money and gaining an industry-standard qualification. This is in addition to the valuable
work experience that it provides. However, to secure an apprenticeship you have to sell
yourself to employers and produce the best possible application for an apprenticeship. If
you want to increase your chances, follow these handy pointers.
For apprenticeships, the most important factors will be your:
qualifications - most apprenticeship programmes will require certain
qualifications, such as a certificate of upper secondary education or vocational
training, or you must at least be working towards them.
skills - hard skills, such as job-specific skills, technical IT ability, design skills or
languages, and soft skills, like communication or teamwork, are required.
career ambitions - apprenticeships are a long-term commitment, and, as is the
case with any job, candidates will be expected to have a strong desire to work in
the industries for which they are applying. Therefore, it pays to research your
options properly and to be determined in pursuing your chosen career path.
experience - some employers will want to see specific experience from candidates,
but this doesn't necessarily have to be work-based. It could have been gained
through school, college, volunteering or extra-curricular activities.
Adapted
Text 2
winners and losers are when making education
and career choices.
and it's vital for the economy. But, and there is
always a but, the academic pathway still has the
higher status. As the saying goes, vocational
education is a great thing… for other people's children.
Another side to this is that there is more need for vocational education than ever before.
Youth unemployment, particularly among those without training or qualifications, is a
problem in many countries. At the same time employers are warning about skills shortages
and not being able to find the right staff.
A major report commissioned by the City and Guilds group (2015), which provides
vocational qualifications, shows how this "mismatch" is an international problem. "Globally,
the stigma of vocational education often reduces it to a second choice to academia,"
concludes the report.
India
India's rising population will see its labour force growing by 32% in the next two decades -
with tens of millions more young people needing to find jobs. But at present only 2.3% of
the workforce has had formal skills training, compared with 80% in Germany. The report
argues that India will not be able to continue its economic growth unless more people take
vocational education.
The report also highlights some of the attitudes that might stand in the way, such as the
"mindset" of Indian parents who focus on getting their children into university and who
associate vocational skills with lower status jobs.
South Africa
South Africa has a 54% youth unemployment rate, and a survey of the country's business
leaders found high levels of concern about a lack of skilled workers.
There are ambitions in South Africa to expand both university and vocational training. There
is a plan to have 2.5 million places in vocational colleges in the next 20 years, a fourfold
increase. But the report warns about the risk of a mismatch between what people are
studying and the needs of employers. For instance, it says there is a surplus of trainees in
sales and communications, when the real shortage, according to experts, is for electricians
and other technical skills.
The UK
In the UK, the report says there has been progress in improving the recognition of
vocational education. There is a target for three million apprentices and the report argues
that investing in vocational skills will be a long-term benefit to the UK economy because it
will cut youth unemployment and boost productivity.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 7 av 20
The report also states that in the upper secondary age group, few young people in the UK
are learning vocational subjects that reach international standards.
Chris Jones, chief executive, City and Guilds Group, said the report shows the need to stop
"outdated prejudices".
"Across the world, governments and businesses are waking up to the importance of work-
relevant, vocational education. Yet there is this stigma against vocational education. To be
competitive in the future, governments need to think about their education strategies. They
need to think about where their economies are heading, and who they'll need to help them
get there."
Text 3
England fans downbeat after loss.
Paralympians have helped to change our definition of winning and losing by achieving excellence in their
chosen sport.
winning the 2017 Women's World Rugby Cup, by
performing a traditional Haka, a Maori war dance.
These golfers are determined to find out who will
win their game of golf. Forest fires worsened by
climate change mean that we all may be on the
losing side.
Rich and poor exist side-by-side in cities all over the English-speaking world.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 9 av 20
Text 4
Being bullied over ginger hair made me, says Ed Sheeran: Award-winning
musician talks of name-calling at school
By Laura Cox
Growing up with ginger hair, glasses and a stutter in a quiet
town, Ed Sheeran was, on the face of it, an unlikely candidate
to be a pop superstar. He didn't have such a good time with the
local bullies, either. But now the award-winning singer and
songwriter says the name-calling he suffered was the making of
him.
Sheeran, 22, said: "I think everyone goes through a bit of
bullying at school. Of course you get picked on for certain things,
but I think it ends up being a positive. I was quite a weird kid
when I was little, I wore big glasses, had hearing problems, had
a stutter and I had ginger hair, but I am now a successful
musician and I have nothing to complain about. So I have come
out the other end and blossomed."
He added: "Being ginger can seem like a bad thing when you are
young but as a musician it has been my saving grace – because
if you see a ginger kid on TV and there is only one messy-haired
ginger kid who plays guitar, it is very easy to find them on
YouTube."
When Ed Sheeran performed at Radio 1's Hackney Weekend, he
suggested life had turned the tables on his past attackers.
He said: "When I went home and went to the pub and saw the
people who used to be d**** at school, it's kind of depressing.
They not only haven't done anything, but they don't know that
there is anything out there. They are so stuck in their little world.
So I feel sad for them – they are kind of being bullied by life."
Last year saw Sheeran start to crack the difficult US market with an appearance on Taylor
Swift's massive album "Red". He also wrote songs for boyband One Direction. His hit song
"A Team", which won an Ivor Novello Award for Best Song Musically and Lyrically, was
nominated for Song of the Year at the 2013 Grammy Awards and he dueted with Elton John
at the ceremony.
and wearing glasses
Text 5
Below is an edited transcript of sportscaster Dale Hansen on the anthem
protests in the NFL (National Football League).
"Former 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick took a knee
during the national anthem in San Francisco last year. We
noticed, but very few players joined him. Not many players
seemed to care. He can't get a job in the NFL now, and very
few have said much about that either. But the president says
he wants that peaceful protest to stop, says those players
should be fired if they take a knee during the anthem and calls
those players a name I never thought I'd live long enough to
hear a president say. Now everybody cares.
Donald Trump has said he supports a peaceful protest
because it's an American's right. But he does not support this
protest, and there's the problem. He clearly thinks that any
protest that you don't agree with is a protest that should be
stopped. Martin Luther King should have marched across a
different bridge. Young black Americans should've gone to a
different college and found a different lunch counter. College
kids in the 60s had no right to protest an immoral war.
The young black athletes are not disrespecting America or the military by taking a knee
during the anthem. They are respecting the best thing about America. They, and all of us,
should protest how black Americans are treated in this country. The comedian Chris Rock
says it best: "There's not a white man in America who would trade places with me, and I’m
rich."
"We have white men in America that wave the Nazi flag and the Confederate flag and
Trump's more concerned about taking a knee because it disrespects this flag. We use the
American flag to sell mattresses and beer. We wear it as a swimsuit. We wrap our bald
heads in a flag bandana and stick it in our pants, because we disrespect that flag every
day. Maybe we all need to read the constitution again. Freedom of speech is the First
Amendment. Nowhere in the constitution does it say that you have to stand during the
anthem."
Adapted
Colin Kaepernick on the cover of
Time Magazine.
Text 6
Donald Trump’s remarks about NFL (National Football League) players taking
a knee:
"Wouldn’t you love to see one of these NFL owners, when somebody disrespects our flag,
to say, "Get that son of a bitch off the field right now. Out. He’s fired. He’s fired!" You know,
some owner is going to do that. He’s going to say, "That guy that disrespects our flag, he’s
fired." And that owner, they don’t know it. They don't know it. They'll be the most popular
person, for a week. They'll be the most popular person in this country.
When the NFL ratings are down massively, massively. The NFL ratings are down massively.
Now the number one reason happens to be they like watching what's happening... with
yours truly. They like what's happening. Because you know today if you hit too hard—15
yards! Throw him out of the game! They had that last week. I watched for a couple of
minutes. Two guys, just really beautiful tackle. Boom, 15 yards! The referee gets on
television, his wife is sitting at home, she's so proud of him. They're ruining the game!
They're ruining the game. That's what they want to do. They want to hit! It is hurting the
game.
But you know what’s hurting the game more than that? When people like yourselves turn
on television and you see those people taking the knee when they are playing our great
national anthem. The only thing you could do better is if you see it, even if it’s one player,
leave the stadium, I guarantee things will stop. Things will stop. Just pick up and leave. Pick
up and leave. Not the same game anymore, anyway."
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 12 av 20
Text 7
Text 8
Instagram, sex and mental health; winners and losers in the age of
the hashtag
American high school movies from Grease (1978) to High School Musical 1 to 4 (2006,
2007, 2008, 2018) have shown us their version of what winners and losers look like and
sound like. Fortunately, real life is a little more nuanced and open for more complex views
of popularity, success and loss. Both online and in mass media, traditional ideas of who
we should be and how we should behave are being challenged.
The negative effects of social media on young
people’s self-esteem are well documented.
However, the opportunity for everybody to publish
on social media also means more voices are heard,
more body images represented and the ideals of
advertising challenged. Instagram accounts such
as South African fitthickblack provide women with
diverse images of what it means to be fit and
healthy. Australian comedian Celeste Barber uses
her Instagram account to poke fun at some of the
ridiculous poses used by celebrities and in
advertising. These examples show how social
media has allowed individuals to turn the tables on
the body image that the traditional media has shown us for so many years. They provide
us with new winners in the popularity stakes that come in a variety of shapes and sizes.
Tasmanian comedian Luke McGregor readily
describes himself as awkward, yet he now stars in his
own documentary series about sex. He challenges
himself and viewers to face the fears and uncertainty
that surround sex. As he puts it, “If there’s one thing
it’s difficult to admit to being bad at, it’s sex.” The
honesty of this documentary series creates
opportunities for more open conversations about sex
that go well beyond the mechanical and medical
aspects. By opening up about his insecurities, Luke
wins over his fears and the audience. He shows that
an anxious red-head who had his first sexual
experience at the age of 25 can be a star of a series
providing a crash course in great sex.
When Luke McGregor was asked how being a man feels to him he replied, “I guess I feel a
little confused and unsure, and like I haven’t quite worked it out yet.” Considering that half
of Australian men have a mental health problem at some point in their lives, it would seem
that Luke’s experience is fairly typical. Australia has one of the world’s highest rates of
male suicide, so charity organisations such as Movember Foundation focus on the
importance of men talking about their feelings. They are challenging the macho culture
Image source: @fitthickblack Instagram
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 14 av 20
that men are losers if they show weakness and have the following simple advice: “Talk.
Ask. Listen. Encourage action. Check in.”
In the age of the hashtag it would appear that new definitions of social winners are evolving.
These definitions may involve being comfortable in your own skin, honest about who you
are and open about how you are doing. This certainly seems like a step in the right direction
and a win for society as a whole.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 15 av 20
Text 9
In this tense situation described in Veronica Roth’s novel
Divergent, several characters are competing for power or standing
up for their beliefs. Tris, who narrates the story, and Al are initiates
who are taking part in training led by the character called Four. In
this extract they are learning to throw knives at a target board and
are joined in the training room by the overall leader of their group,
Eric. Eric is less than happy that Al, who is physically strong, has
not mastered knife throwing.
A half hour later, Al is the only initiate who hasn't hit the target yet.
His knives clatter to the floor, or bounce off the wall. While the rest
of us approach the board to collect our weapons, he hunts the
floor for his.
The next time he tries and misses, Eric marches toward him and demands, "How
slow are you? Do you need glasses? Should I move the target closer to you?"
Al's face turns red. He throws another knife, and this one sails a few feet to the right
of the target. It spins and hits the wall.
"What was that, initiate?" says Eric quietly, leaning closer to Al.
I bite my lip. This isn't good.
"It—it slipped," says Al.
"Well, I think you should go get it," Eric says. He scans the other initiates' faces—
everyone has stopped throwing — and says, "Did I tell you to stop?"
Knives start to hit the board. We have all seen Eric angry before, but this is different.
The look in his eyes is almost rabid.
"Go get it?" Al's eyes are wide. "But everyone's still throwing."
"And?"
"And I don't want to get hit."
"I think you can trust your fellow initiates to aim better than you." Eric smiles a little,
but his eyes stay cruel. "Go get your knife."
Al doesn't usually object to anything he is told to do during initiation. I don't think
he's afraid to; he just knows that objecting is useless. This time Al sets his wide jaw. He's
reached the limits of his compliance.
"No," he says.
"Why not?" Eric's beady eyes fix on Al's face. "Are you afraid?"
"Of getting stabbed by an airborne knife?" says Al. "Yes, I am!"
Honesty is his mistake. Not his refusal, which Eric might have accepted.
"Everyone stop!" Eric shouts.
The knives stop, and so does all conversation. I hold my small dagger tightly.
"Clear out of the ring." Eric looks at Al. "All except you."
I drop the dagger and it hits the dusty floor with a thud. I follow the other initiates to
the edge of the room, and they inch in front of me, eager to see what makes my stomach
turn: Al, facing Eric's wrath.
"Stand in front of the target," says Eric.
Al's big hands shake. He walks back to the target.
"Hey, Four." Eric looks over his shoulder. "Give me a hand here, huh?"
Four scratches one of his eyebrows with a knife point and approaches Eric. He has
dark circles under his eyes and a tense set to his mouth—he's as tired as we are.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 16 av 20
"You're going to stand there as he throws those knives," Eric says to Al, "until you
learn not to flinch."
"Is this really necessary?" says Four. He sounds bored, but he doesn't look bored.
His face and body are tense, alert.
I squeeze my hands into fists. No matter how casual Four sounds, the question is a
challenge. And Four doesn't often challenge Eric directly.
At first Eric stares at Four in silence. Four stares back. Seconds pass and my
fingernails bite my palms.
"I have the authority here, remember?" Eric says, so quietly I can barely hear him.
"Here, and everywhere else."
Color rushes into Four's face, though his expression does not change. His grip on
the knives tightens and his knuckles turn white as he turns to face Al.
I look from Al's wide, dark eyes to his shaking hands to the determined set of Four's
jaw. Anger bubbles in my chest, and bursts from my mouth: "Stop it."
Four turns the knife in his hand, his fingers moving painstakingly over the metal
edge. He gives me such a hard look that I feel like he's turning me to stone. I know why. I
am stupid for speaking up while Eric is here; I am stupid for speaking up at all.
"Any idiot can stand in front of a target," I say. "It doesn't prove anything except that
you're bullying us. Which, as I recall, is a sign of cowardice."
"Then it should be easy for you," Eric says. "If you're willing to take his place."
The last thing I want to do is stand in front of that target, but I can't back down now. I didn't
leave myself the option.
I walk toward Al. He nods at me. I try to smile encouragingly, but I can't manage it.
I stand in front of the board, and my head doesn't even reach the center of the target, but
it doesn't matter. I look at Four's knives: one in his right hand, two in his left hand.
My throat is dry. I try to swallow, and then look at Four. He is never sloppy. He won't
hit me. I'll be fine.
I tip my chin up. I will not flinch. If I flinch, I prove to Eric that this is not as easy as I
said it was; I prove that I'm a coward.
"If you flinch," Four says, slowly, carefully, "Al takes your place. Understand?"
I nod.
Four's eyes are still on mine when he lifts his hand, pulls his elbow back, and throws
the knife. It is just a flash in the air, and then I hear a thud. The knife is buried in the board,
half a foot away from my cheek. I close my eyes. Thank God.
"You about done?" asks Four.
I remember Al's wide eyes and his quiet sobs at night and shake my head. "No."
"Eyes open, then." He taps the spot between his eyebrows.
I stare at him, pressing my hands to my sides so no one can see them shake. He
passes a knife from his left hand to his right hand, and I see nothing but his eyes as the
second knife hits the target above my head. This one is closer than the last one—I feel it
hovering over my skull.
"Come on, Tris" he says. "Let someone else stand there and take it."
Why is he trying to goad me into giving up? Does he want me to fail?
"Shut up, Four!"
I hold my breath as he turns the last knife in his hand. I see a glint in his eyes as he
pulls his arm back and lets the knife fly. It comes straight at me, spinning, blade over
handle. My body goes rigid. This time, when it hits the board, my ear stings, and blood
tickles my skin. I touch my ear. He nicked it.
And judging by the look he gives me, he did it on purpose.
"I would love to stay and see if the rest of you are as daring as she is," says Eric, his
voice smooth, "but I think that's enough for today."
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 17 av 20
He squeezes my shoulder. His fingers feel dry and cold, and the look he gives me
claims me, like he's taking ownership of what I did. I don't return Eric's smile. What I did
had nothing to do with him.
"I should keep my eye on you," he adds.
Førebuing/Forberedelse ENG1002,ENG1003 Side 18 av 20
Sources
Text 1
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Text 4
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Text 5
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Text 6
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