French Baroque. Characteristics. Academic Pyramidal Symmetrical Appears very “Renaissance”. France. Bourbon monarchs Henry IV Louis XIII(Marie de Medici, Richelieu) Louis XIV(Anne of Austria, Mazarin). Louis XIV. “Sun King” Scientific Revolution Copernican theory Sunflowers Apollo - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
French BaroqueCharacteristicsAcademicPyramidalSymmetricalAppears very RenaissanceFranceBourbon monarchsHenry IVLouis XIII(Marie de Medici, Richelieu)Louis XIV(Anne of Austria, Mazarin)
Louis XIVSun KingScientific RevolutionCopernican theorySunflowersApollo1635: French Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture-strict controlHyacinthe Rigaud: Louis XIV
Louis ordered as a gift for his grandson Philip V of Spain, but he kept it 5How does Louis XIV use art?How does his use of art differ from the Catholic Church?
617th cen. France was dominated by Louis XIV,t he Sun King, who reigned from 1643 until 1715. His biographer Duc de Saint-Simon, observed, Louis loved glory, he willed order and rule. His last mistress, who eventually became his secret wife, complained, For him, nothing counts but grandeur, magnificence and symmetryOne must perish in symmetry.Louiss own preferences for order, rule, and symmetry, as well as for magnificence, left a strong stylistic imprint on the art of his age and resulted in an art variously called Classical Baroque, Academic, Late Baroque, or the Grand Manner.
How does Louis XIV use art?For Louis, art was an arm of his statecraft. Louis, like the Counter-Reformation church, used art for a particular purpose, which in his case was a political tool. His artists effectively fulfilled his wishes, because the center of art as well as of politics gradually shifted to France in the 17th Century.
How does his use of art differ from the Catholic Church?
Peasant Dinner, LeNain,
Family of Country People, LeNain, 1640, oil on canvas
10My temperament compels me to look for and take pleasure in well-ordered things. I avoid confusion. Poussin was the greatest French painter of the 17th cen. And the earliest to win international fame. Louis XIII named him 1st Painter to the King, but Poussin was ill-suited to the intrigues of the French court and uninspired by royal commissions for chapel paintings and tapestry designs. So after only painting for the king for 2 years he returned to Rome, where he spent the rest of his career surrounded by Classical and Renaissance masterpieces that lay at the heart of his own work. Bernini, pointing to his forehead, called Poussin a painter who works up here. Poussins art originated with his intellect: paintings for him embodied noble subjects represented through clarity and order.Poussin, Holy Family on the Steps, 1648
11In one particular respect we can define Poussins conception of Reason more precisely. It was closely bound up with mathematics, and especially with geometry. For the seventeenth century, mathematics was the supreme achievement of human reason because of the absolute certainty of its demonstrations, and it was also a symbol of clarity and order. Anthony Blunt
12The idea of connecting painting with mathematics was not, of course, new it had been one of the foundations of Renaissance aesthetics but Poussin believed in it with such fervour that it produced new and astonishing results in the paintings of the 1640s, of which the most striking example is the Holy Family on the Steps. Anthony BluntPoussin: Bacchanalia
Poussin: Dance to the Music of Time18Hyacinthe Rigaud, Louis XIV, 1701
Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, 163819Hyacinthe Rigaud, who painted the portrait we saw of Louis XIV, came close to fulfilling Louiss desire for art to reflect his glory, but one wonders if poor old Louis, who was 62 at the time was beginning to slip. The red high heels and billowing drapery are rather far from Poussins restraint and balance. In style, this work is much more truly Baroque that were Poussins, and it is also more pompus.
Mansart and LeVau: VERSAILLES
14000 servants5000 aristocratsLeVau and LeBrun oversaw the interiroLe Notre the gardens
240X47Mirrors created by fitting 18 panels togetherPaintings are scenes glorifying Louis assisted by the gods22
De La Tour
Poussin: John in Patmos
Lorrain, Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba, 1648
30Lorrain also shared the lucid intellectuality of the period, but Lorriains compositions contain and strong lyrical element that comes from his glowing light. Almost all of his canvases are bathed in the golden glow of sun that is often just above the horizon. Although Poussin and Lorrains reflect Louiss interest in an art of order and rule, neither of them fulfilled his last requirement for GLORY, subsequently neither of them worked very long for Louis XIV. Miseries of War, Callot, 1633, etching
The Hanging: "In the end, these infamous and lost thieves/Like unhappy fruit on this pendulous tree/Show well that crime (horrible and black spawn)/Is itself the instrument of shame and vengeance/And that it is the destiny of vicious men/To experience sooner or later the justice of heaven. Translation of caption below the etchingHe made over 1,400 brilliantly detailed etchings that chronicled the life of his period, featuring soldiers, clowns, drunkards, Gypsies, beggars, as well as court life. He also etched many religious and military images, and many prints featured extensive landscapes in their background.