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Freud and Psychoanalysis. By: Maggie, Karlyn , Dava , Natalia, Mitzi, Olivia, and Heidi. Freud. Father of psychoanalysis from Vienna Completed medical school, but after studying hypnosis, turned his focus on psychology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Freud and Psychoanalysis

By: Maggie, Karlyn, Dava, Natalia, Mitzi, Olivia, and HeidiFreud and PsychoanalysisFreudFather of psychoanalysis from ViennaCompleted medical school, but after studying hypnosis, turned his focus on psychologyHis first book The Interpretation of Dreams has become one of the most respected and controversial books on personality theoryHe was the first major theorist to write solely about non-biological approaches to understanding and treating particular illnesses. These illnesses were considered medical in his time and were redefined through his theories. He was able to refine the concepts of the unconscious, infantile sexuality, repression, and proposed a tripartite account of the minds structure

Psychoanalysis What we think and do is based on our unconscious wishesAlso a technique for curing psychological disorders in which one's unconscious is revealed

ConsciousnessUnconscious= A collection of our secret thoughts and wishes that are considered socially "wrong." Preconscious- the ordinary memory where memories and knowledge are stored

More Freudian Terms Free Association= The method of exploring unconscious in which a person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassingLibido = Sexual desire or instinct energy force that the Id carries

Personality StructureIdOldest system to satisfy basic drives Present since birthProvides energy to fuel the Ego and SuperegoOperates by the Pleasure Principal (Immediate satisfaction/pleasure, and no pain)SuperegoSense of morality----right and wrongPunishes bad behavior and rewards good behaviorParents build it into childrenActing against it ---- Feelings of guilt

EgoVoice of reasoning and sensibilityReality Principle---Make Ids needs become a reality in more reasonable ways that bring long-term pleasureHolds partly conscious feelings/judgmentsExecutive --- Mediates between the opposing Id and superego Example: CakeHealthy personality is a balance b/w the Id, Ego, and Superego

Pleasure PrincipalThe driving force of the id that seeks immediate gratification of all needs, wants, and urgesSeeks to reduce tension, avoid pain, and obtain pleasureMakes us want things that feel good (ex. food, sex)

Reality PrincipleThe principle guiding the operation of the egoseeks to find socially acceptable outlets for instinctual energiesSubordinating the pleasure principle to the reality principle is done through a psychological process Freud calls SUBLIMATION

Defense Mechanisms Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety from reaching consciousnessoperate unconsciouslyEither deny or distort realityThese defenses are often unhealthy patterns that cause emotional problems and self-defeating behaviorRepression, projection, reaction formation, regression, denial, rationalization, and displacement

SublimationChannels the energy from unwanted impulses into something acceptable or productiveMost useful mechanism: Turns something bad into something usefulFreud thought mans greatest achievements came from thisExample:A person with aggressive desires to cut people up becomes a surgeon.

RepressionPrimary defense mechanism, maintaining that thoughts, feelings, and memories can be pushed into a persons subconscious, usually due to their unacceptable or anxiety-arousing natureEx: If a person was in a traumatic car crash as a child, he/she might repress the memory and no longer be able to recall the incident as an adult. Freud thought that repressed ideas can enter consciousness again through retrieval mechanisms (hypnosis, etc).

ProjectionWhen people often attribute their unacceptable impulses to others in order to mask these impulses in themselves.Ex: A person might call someone else unreliable, in order to mask their own unreliable tendencies.

Reaction FormationWhen the ego causes people to exhibit feelings opposite from their unconscious anxiety-arousing feelings in order to keep unacceptable impulses from surfacingEx.: If a person subconsciously loves another, they may express hatred toward that person (love being the unacceptable or unwanted feeling and hate being its opposite)

RegressionWhen individuals relapse into habits from previous partially unfulfilled psychosexual stages when they are faced with novel or anxiety-arousing situationsEx: An older child might return to sucking on his thumb again when his mother leaves him on the first day of school.

DenialUsed when faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept-- blocks external events from awarenessIf situation is too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it by stating it doesn't existEx.: Denying that your physician's diagnosis of cancer is correct and seeking a second opinion

DisplacementDiverts sexual or aggressive impulses toward an object or person that is psychologically more acceptable than the one that aroused the feelingsIf the impulse, the desire, is okay with you, but the person you direct that desire towards is too threatening, you can displace to someone or something that can serve as a symbolic substitute.Ex: Slamming a door instead of hitting a person; yelling at your spouse after an argument with your boss

RationalizationWhen we unconsciously generate self-justifying explanations to hide from ourselves the real reason for our actions and make an event or an impulse less threatening. We do it often enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. But for many people, with sensitive egos, making excuses comes so easy that they never are truly aware of it. In other words, many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies.Ex: Stating that you were fired because you didn't kiss up the boss, when the real reason was your poor performance

IdentificationProcess by which children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegosEgo and the superego are constructed on the basis of a series of identifications

ReferencesChiriac, J. (2009, December 10). Psychoanalysis - Free Associations Method. Sigmund Freud - Life and Work. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from's Personality Factors. (n.d.). Changing minds and persuasion -- How we change what others think, believe, feel and do. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Media Group. (2004, March 23). Psychoanalytic Theory. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from, M. (2001, September 27). Psychoanalysis and Sigmund Freud. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from, D. G.(2007). The Psychoanalytic Perspective. In C. Brune & N. Fleming (Eds.), Psychology (596-600). New York, NY: Worth Publishers.Psychoanalysis-techniques and practice. (2009, October 25). Retrieved March 14, 2010, from freud's personality theory. (2000). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Sublimation. (2010). Retrieved March 13, 2010, from Syque. (2002). Regression. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from, S. P. (2005, July 8). Sigmund Freud. Retrieved March 13, 2010, from, C., & Tavris, C. (1993). Psychology (3rd ed., pp. 432-433). New York: HarperCollins.

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