From Trustee Colony to Royal Colony Trustee period: 1732- 1752 Trustee period: 1732- 1752 Referred to as Trustee Georgia because during that time a Board

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From Trustee Colony to Royal Colony Trustee period: 1732- 1752 Trustee period: 1732- 1752 Referred to as Trustee Georgia because during that time a Board of Trustees ruled the colony Referred to as Trustee Georgia because during that time a Board of Trustees ruled the colony The seal adopted by the Georgia Trustees features a silkworm, mulberry leaf, and cocoon, representing their hopes that the colonists would establish a thriving silk industry. The Latin motto Non sibi sed aliis translates as "Not for self, but for others." Courtesy of Georgia Historical Society Slide 2 Ending the Trustee Period During the 20 years of the Trustee period, many accomplishments were made: During the 20 years of the Trustee period, many accomplishments were made: 5500 people had settled in Georgia, building homes and starting new lives 5500 people had settled in Georgia, building homes and starting new lives Settlers escaping religious persecution were able to worship freely Settlers escaping religious persecution were able to worship freely Treaties with the Native Americans, as well as the elimination of the Spanish threat of invasion (Battle of Bloody Marsh), had ended the need for British protection Treaties with the Native Americans, as well as the elimination of the Spanish threat of invasion (Battle of Bloody Marsh), had ended the need for British protection Court system still functioned: by 1750, colonists had gained outright ownership of land, and women were able to inherit property Court system still functioned: by 1750, colonists had gained outright ownership of land, and women were able to inherit property Bethesda Orphans Home in Ebenezer became Bethesda House (school) Bethesda Orphans Home in Ebenezer became Bethesda House (school) Provided basic education to many future Georgia leaders Provided basic education to many future Georgia leaders Bethesda Home for Boys, 1740 1361 PH Georgia Historical Society Photograph Collection, Box 7, Folder 12, Item 1303 Slide 3 Georgia as a Royal Colony When the original charter ended in 1752, Georgia became a British royal colony (this lasted until the end of the American Revolution1783) When the original charter ended in 1752, Georgia became a British royal colony (this lasted until the end of the American Revolution1783) Royal colony: one directly governed by the king Royal colony: one directly governed by the king Proprietary colony (GA: 1732-1752): governed by a board of trustees Proprietary colony (GA: 1732-1752): governed by a board of trustees 1752: Puritans from SC started moving into present- day Liberty County, bringing their slaves with them. They began growing rice and indigo (why?) and built a port at Sunbury so that planters could ship their crops 1752: Puritans from SC started moving into present- day Liberty County, bringing their slaves with them. They began growing rice and indigo (why?) and built a port at Sunbury so that planters could ship their crops Slide 4 John Reynolds (1 st royal Governor:1754-1757) Arrived in Georgia on October 1, 1754 colonists cheered at his arrival Arrived in Georgia on October 1, 1754 colonists cheered at his arrival Introduced the idea of self-government: wanted the colonists to help run the government Introduced the idea of self-government: wanted the colonists to help run the government Set up a court system: Court of Conscience Set up a court system: Court of Conscience Slide 5 Government in the Royal Colony Bicameral (two chamber) legislature was set up to represent the 8 parishes of the colony Bicameral (two chamber) legislature was set up to represent the 8 parishes of the colony Parish: a British government district Parish: a British government district Lower house: Commons House of Assembly Lower house: Commons House of Assembly Those wishing to join the Assembly had to own at least 500 acres of land Those wishing to join the Assembly had to own at least 500 acres of land Upper house: Governors Council Upper house: Governors Council Governor appointed members of the Governors Council Governor appointed members of the Governors Council New government met for the 1 st time in 1755 in Savannah New government met for the 1 st time in 1755 in Savannah reorganized state militia reorganized state militia passed bills to build/repair roads passed bills to build/repair roads drew up codes to restrict the rights of slaves drew up codes to restrict the rights of slaves Slide 6 Slide 7 Court System in the Royal Colony Reynolds did set up a court. Reynolds did set up a court. Court of Conscience: presided over by a local justice of the peace Court of Conscience: presided over by a local justice of the peace When colonists had complaints, they would go before this court When colonists had complaints, they would go before this court Cases that could not be settled went to the Governors Council Cases that could not be settled went to the Governors Council Slide 8 Reynolds Downfall Reynolds dissolved the legislature when he felt threatened that they would undermine his authority Reynolds dissolved the legislature when he felt threatened that they would undermine his authority Without the legislature, Reynolds attempted to run the government himself, making the colonists angry Without the legislature, Reynolds attempted to run the government himself, making the colonists angry Lacked diplomacy in dealing with Natives which was VERY important with the French & Indian War going on Lacked diplomacy in dealing with Natives which was VERY important with the French & Indian War going on Angry colonists (including a large land-holder) wrote to King George complaining about Reynolds actions. He relinquished control of Georgia to Henry Ellis in 1756. Angry colonists (including a large land-holder) wrote to King George complaining about Reynolds actions. He relinquished control of Georgia to Henry Ellis in 1756. King George IIin a Royal Colony, the King has ultimate control Slide 9 Henry Ellis (1757-1760 Took control after Reynolds Took control after Reynolds Learned quickly from Reynolds mistakes Learned quickly from Reynolds mistakes Known as the Second Founder of Georgia Known as the Second Founder of Georgia Ellis taught Georgians the art of self- government. He created a budget, taxes, clarified land titles with Natives, ended the political drama Ellis taught Georgians the art of self- government. He created a budget, taxes, clarified land titles with Natives, ended the political drama Brought people together from many different political groups Brought people together from many different political groups Population almost doubled under his term: 1759population was about 10,000 including 3,600 slaves Population almost doubled under his term: 1759population was about 10,000 including 3,600 slaves Colony made several economic gains Colony made several economic gains profitable farms profitable farms more merchants with a greater variety of goods more merchants with a greater variety of goods This allowed colonists to buy things they could not grow or manufacture (cloth, sugar, farming tools, seeds for planting) This allowed colonists to buy things they could not grow or manufacture (cloth, sugar, farming tools, seeds for planting) Left office after becoming ill in 1760 Left office after becoming ill in 1760 Carte de la Caroline and Georgia Pour Servir a l'Histoire Generale des Voyages, drawn by M. B. Ing of the French Navy, 1757 (Map of Carolina and Georgia to Serve the General History of Travels) Georgia Historical Society Map Collection, #298 SS Slide 10 He built a solid foundation for Georgia. He had skills that Reynolds did not. He built a solid foundation for Georgia. He had skills that Reynolds did not. Elliss most important skill involved his communication with Native American tribes. Elliss most important skill involved his communication with Native American tribes. He held on to the friendship of the Creek Nation and declared Georgias authority to control the Indian trade. He held on to the friendship of the Creek Nation and declared Georgias authority to control the Indian trade. By 1760, an ailing Ellis left Georgia and the governor position. By 1760, an ailing Ellis left Georgia and the governor position. He also created the first 8 counties called parishes. Slide 11 James Wright (1760-1781) 3 rd Royal governor Born in S.C. (was the previous S.C. Attorney General Loyal to the King, but wanted the colonies to prosper Believed that Georgia would continue to grow if: large farms were bigger trading expanded western lands of the colony were opened to settlers James Wright was very popular and held the governors position for sixteen years, from 1760 to 1776. Courtesy of Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, University of Georgia Libraries Slide 12 Impact of the French & Indian War Georgia did not fight in the war but gained lands from it. Georgia did not fight in the war but gained lands from it. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763 which ended the French & Indian war it took land from the Spanish and extended Georgias lands to the St. Mississippi River and there was a Proclamation of 1763. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763 which ended the French & Indian war it took land from the Spanish and extended Georgias lands to the St. Mississippi River and there was a Proclamation of 1763. Proclamation of 1763: took Frances lands west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. But it RESERVED this land for the Natives who helped the British. Proclamation of 1763: took Frances lands west of the Appalachians to the Mississippi River. But it RESERVED this land for the Natives who helped the British. Slide 13 Land Grants & Demand for Slaves Settlers who came to the colony by way of the Trusts charity, were limited to 50 acre land grants. Settlers who came to the colony by way of the Trusts charity, were limited to 50 acre land grants. Those who paid their way could have up to 500