Gallo-Brittonic Glossary

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A glossary of attested and reconstructed Gallo-Brittonic words, showning their individual components and etymologies.

Text of Gallo-Brittonic Glossary

  • Gallo-Brittonic Glossary Version 1.4 (12th August 2013)

    Edward Hatfield (Wedoku)

    Entries : 203

    ~

    Class 1.1 forms (1.1) : Reconstructions about which there is little to no doubt, due to being either a) attested or b) unattested but with clear PIE derivation and descendant/cognates in later Celtic and other IE languages. Very unlikely to change.

    Class 1.2 forms (1.2) : Reconstructions about which there is little to no doubt, due to being derivatives of Class 1.1 reconstructions, the individual components of which have clear PIE ancestors or attestation. Very unlikely to change.

    Class 1.3 forms (1.3) : Reconstructions about which there is some degree of doubt, due to being either a) attested but with unclear meaning, or b) attested but with unclear modifying components. May change.

    Class 2.1 forms (2.1) : Reconstructions about which there is some degree of doubt, due to being based soley on either a) later Celtic or b) PIE forms. May change.

    Class 2.2 forms (2.2) : Reconstructions about which there is some degree of doubt, due to being derivatives of Class 2.1 reconstructions, but with the modifying components having clear PIE ancestors or attestation. May change.

    Class 2.3 forms (2.3) : Reconstructions about which there is serious doubt, due to being derivatives of Class 2.1 reconstructions, but with the modifying components having no clear PIE ancestors or attestation. Will likely change.

    Class 3.1 forms (3.1) : Reconstructions about which there is serious doubt, due to either lack of or serious ambiguity of evidence. Will likely change.

    Class 3.2 forms (3.2) : Reconstructions about which there is serious doubt, due to being derivatives of Class 3.1 reconstructions, regardless of whether the modifying components have PIE ancestors or attestation. Very likely to change.

  • *ad (prep.) [< * | > W : at] 1.1 1. to, toward, up to (+ acc.)

    *ad-ag-e/o- [< *ad-h2 - | > OI : adaig] 1.2 1. drive, impel, set in motion 2. put, place, push, thrust 3. impose on, inflict 4. give, proffer 5. bring, carry 6. raise, shout, put forth 7. take a wife, marry 8. set about, undertake, begin 9. go, proceed >

    *ad-kan-e/o- (S1) [< *ad-kan- | > W : achan paean | OI : adcain] 1.2 1. sing to, recite, extol, sound

    *ad-karo-s (ao.) [< *ad-karo- | > W : achar] 1.2 1. very dear 2. affectionate, amiable

    *ag-e/o- (S1) [< *h2 - | > W : | OI : aigid] 1.1 1. drive, impell 2. go

    *alio-s (ayo.) [< * - | > W : ail (~ eiliau) | OI : aile] 1.1 1. other, another, one of two 2. second 3. other, another, alternate (mo.?)

    *ambi (prep.) [< *ambhi- | > W : am | OI : imm] 1.1 1. around, about, on both sides 2. for, concerning 3. great, very, entirely (prefix)

    *ambi-ag-e/o- [< *ambhi-h2 - | > OI : immaig] 1.2 1. drive, drive around, pursue

    *ambi-nert-- (W1) [< *ambhi-h2nt- | > W : ymnerthu | OI : imnertaid] 1.2 1. strengthen (oneself?)

    *ambi-nert-atu-s (?u.) [OI : imnertad] 1.2 1. great strengthening

    *ambi-sterk (f) [< *ambhi-sterk- | > OI : imserch] 1.2 1. mutual love

  • *n-mati-s (ai.) [< *-m-t- | > W : anfad | AC : anmat-] 1.1 1. not good 2. unlucky 3. naughty 4. wicked, nefarious, unholy

    *an-rgn (f) [OI : r g n] 1. non-queen, common woman

    *an-rx-s (mg.) [OI : r ] 1.2 1. non-king, commoner

    *an-sterk-ko-s (ao.) [OI : ainserchach] 1.2 1. unfriendly, hostile 2. cruel, merciless

    *n-wt-ko-s (ao.) [OI : n t ] 1.2 1. unwise, unreasonable, lacking knowledge or skill

    *arto-s (mo.) [W : arth ~ eirth | OI : art ~ airt] 1.1 1. bear 2. hero

    * tr (mr.) [OI : athair] 1.1 1. father 2. (plural) forefathers, ancestors

    *banwagno-s (mo.) [OI : n n] 1.2 1. small pig

    *banwo-s (mo.) [W : banw ~ -od | OI : banb ~ bainb] 1.1 1. piglet, young pig

    * n (fir.) [OI : ben n 1.1 1. woman 2. wife 3. (as suffix) ess

    *ber-e/o- (S1) [OI : beirid] 1.1 1. carry, infer (of arguments or facts) 2. bear, bring forth, yield, (passive) be born 3. judge, pass judgement, interpret (dreams) 4. carry away, take (with one) 5. win, secure (victory), carry off 6. obtain, take, get 7. spend (time), (intransitive) last, keep, endure 8. carry away from

  • 9. bring to 10. put (with nouns expressing movement) 11. give

    *biwo-s (ao.) [W : byw | OI : o] 1.1 1. alive, living, quick, animate 2. being, creature (?o.) 3. immortal (spiritual sense)

    *blig-e/o- (S1) [OI : bligid / mligid] 1.2 1. milk

    *blixt-ko-s (ao.) [W : blithog | OI : blechtach] 1.2 1. milk-giving

    *blixti-s (ai.) [W : blith | OI : mlicht] 1.2 1. milch, in milk (of cattle)

    *blixtu- r-i (fi.) [OI : blichmaire] 1.2 1. lactiferousness, abundant yield of milk

    *blixtu- ro-s (ao.) [OI : blichtmar] 1.2 1. yielding milk, fruitful

    *blixtu-s (mu.) [W : blith | OI : blicht] 1.1 1. milk 2. milking, milk-yield

    *bous (m/fir.) [MW : bu | OI : ] 1.1 1. cow, ox 2. (plural) cattle

    * rtr (mr.) [W : brawd ~ brodyr | OI : r t ir] 1.1 1. brother 2. cousin 3. kinsman, clansman 4. word of similar declension

    *bukk-ko-s (ao.) [OI : bocach] 1.2 1. leaping (like a goat)

    *bukko-s (mo.) [W : bwch | OI : bocc] 1.1 1. he-goat, buck 2. male deer

    *dnt (nt.) [W : dant ~ daint | OI : d t 1.1 1. tooth

  • *dnt-ko-s (ao.) [OI : d t ] 1.1 1. having teeth

    *dek eto-s (ao.) [W : degfed | OI : dechmad] 1.1 1. tenth

    *dekn (num.) [W : deg | OI : deich] 1.1 1. ten

    *dwo-s (mo.) [W : duw ~ duwiau | OI : d 1.1 1. god 2. supernatural being

    *d-mati-s (ai.) [W : difad | OI : d it ] 1.2 1. not good, lacking good, bad

    *d-nert-ko-s (ao.) [OI : d nert ] 1.2 1. weak, strengthless

    *d-nerto-n (no.) [OI : d nert] 1.2 1. weakness

    *duxtr (fr.) [AC : duxtir] 1.1 1. daughter

    *elu-s (au.) [OI : il] 1.1 1. much, manifold, great 2. many, numerous (+ plural)

    *elutouts (fpl.) [OI : ilt t ] 1.2 1. many peoples

    *epo-s (mo.) [OI : ech ~ eich] 1.1 1. horse (swif one)

    *sko-s (mo.) [OI : s is 1.1 1. fish

    *exs (prep.) [W : a | OI : as] 1.1 1. out of, from (+ dat.)

    *exs-ber-e/o- (S1) [OI : asbeir] 1.2 1. say, speak

    *glast-- (W1) [OI : glasaid] 1.2 1. make or become glastos-coloured

    *glast-ko-s (ao.) [W : glasog | OI : glasach] 1.2 1. being blue, livid, grey

  • *glast-i- (fi) [OI : glase] 1.2 1. greenness, blueness

    *glasto-gorto-s (mo.) [OI : glasgort] 1.2 1. green cornfield

    *glasto-mori (ni.) [W : glasfor ~ glasfyr] 1.2 1. blue sea

    *glasto-n (no.) [A.Celtic : glastum] 1.1 1. woad

    *glasto-roudo-s (ao) [C : glasrudh] 1.2 1. purple, violet

    *glasto-s (ao.) [W : glas | OI : glas] 1.1 1. green, greenish (of growing things), verdant 2. blue, greenish blue, greyish blue 3. woad-coloured 4. metallic-coloured 5. ice or frost-coloured 6. grey 7. pale, wan (of complexion), faded (of clothing), livid, discoloured 8. fresh, young, inexperienced 9. raw, sharp 10. grey, overcast (of weather) 11. plain, unpretentious

    *glasto-tros (ns.) [W : glastir ~ glastiroedd] 1.2 1. sward, pasture-land

    *gorto-s (mo.) [W : garth ~ garthau | OI : gort ~ goirt] 1.1 1. yard, enclosure, fold 2. pasture, field 3. battlefield 4. land, territory

    *ib-e/o- (SI) [W : yf-ed | OI : ibid] 1.1 1. drink

    *ibo-karo-s (ao.) [W : yfgar] 1.2 1. fond of drinking

    *ibo-wiro-s (mo.) [W : yfwr ~ yfwyr] 1.2 1. drinker

  • *kan-e/o- (S1) [W : canu | OI : canid] 1.1 1. sing, recite, chant 2. praise 3. speak

    *knton (num.) [W : cant | OI : t] 1.1 1. hundred

    *kar-- (W1) [W : caru | OI : caraid] 1.1 1. love, like

    *karant-s (mt.) [W : r ~ certaint | OI : carat] 1.2 1. friend 2. relative, relation

    *karo-s (ao.) [W : (a)char] 1.1 1. dear, beloved

    *karo-wiro-s (mo.) [W : carwr ~ -wyr] 1.2 1. lover

    *karwo-s (mo.) [W : carw ~ ceirw] 1.1 1. deer, stag (horne one)

    *katu-s (mu.) [W : cad ~ cadau | OI : cath] 1.1 1. battle, fight, fighting

    *kom- rtr (mr.) [OI : o r t ir] 1.2 1. relation, kinsman 2. brother (spiritual)

    *kom-lno-s (ao.) [OI : o l n] 1.2 1. full, filled with

    *kom- ro-s (ao.) [OI : o r] 1.2 1. very or equally great 2. equal amount (?o.)

    *kom-mati-s (ai.) [OI : commaith] 1.2 1. very or equally good

    *kom-nerto- ro-s (ao.) [OI : comnertmar] 1.2 1. powerful

    *kom-nerto-n (no.) [W : cyfnerth ~ cyfnertion (m.) | OI : comnert] 1.2 1. strength, power 2. great or