DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGM.TECH. IN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY
Subject: Ecology & Environment
ASSIGNMENTOn Ganga Action Plan
SUBMITTED TODr. Sukalyan Chakraborty
Pranav Kumar (MT/ET/10006/14)
Academic year 2014-2016NOVEMBER, 2014
GANGA ACTION PLAN
>>>CONTENTS->INTRODUCTION>GANGA TODAY>GANGA ACTION PLAN (GAP)>ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE OF GAP>COST AND FUNDS OF GAP>STATUS OF GAP>SUPREME COURT OF INDIA>NAMAMI GANGE>STRENGTH OF GAP>LIMITATION OF GAP>CORRECTIVE MEASURE>LESSON LEARNT>CONCLUSION
>> INTRODUCTIONThe Ganga is the largest river in India with an extraordinary religious importance for Hindus. It is a life-line, a symbol of purity and virtue for countless people of India. Ganga is a representative of all other rivers in India. Millions of Ganga devotees and lovers still throng to the river just to have a holy dip, Aachman (Mouthful with holy water), and absolve themselves of sins. The Ganga temples, countless rituals associated with Ganga and our belief that Ganga is a cleanser par excellence prove that Ganga has a status of a deity. Hundreds of verses have been used to extol her glory and greatness. Lord Krishna, Lord Rama, Lord Siva, Lord Vishnu including great saints like Sri Swami Sivananda, Sri Ramakrishna and others have all glorified her. Situated along its banks are some of the world's oldest inhabited cities like Varanasi and Patna. Ganga is a perennial river which originates as a stream called Bhagirathi fromGaumukh in the Gangotri glacier at 30 55' N, 79 7' E, some 4100 m above mean sea level. Ganga river basin is the largest among river basins in India and the fourth largest in the world, with a basin (catchment area) covering 8, 61,404 sq km. It has a total length of 2,525 km, out of which 1,425 km is in Uttaranchal and UP, 475 km is in Bihar and 625 km is in West Bengal. Already half a billion people live within the river basin, at an average density of over 500 per sq km, and this population is projected to increase to over one billion people by the year 2030. It provides water to about 40% of India's population across 11 states, serving an estimated population of 500 million people or more, which is larger than any other river in the world.
>> GANGA TODAYToday, it is considered to be one of the most polluted rivers in the world. The Ganga drains 11 states of India. Today, the 2,525 km long river supports 29 class I cities, 23 class II cities and 48 towns, plus thousands of villages. Nearly all the sewage, industrial effluent, runoff from chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture within the basin, and large quantities of solid waste, including thousands of animals carcasses and hundreds of human corpses are dumped in the river everyday. The socio-economic changes in the post industrialization era have adversely affected the flow and quality of the river water leading to pollution of the river. In order to reduce the pollution of this river the Government of India (GOI) has been implementing a pollution abatement program called GAP since last 25 years.
>> Ganga Action Plan (GAP)The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) originated from the personal intervention and interest of our late Prime Minister Mrs Indira Gandhi who had directed the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, now Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) to do a comprehensive survey of the situation in 1979. CPCB published two comprehensive reports which formed the base for GAP in Oct 1984 but was not presented to the nation formally due to assassination of Smt Indira Gandhi. Then Ganga action plan was, launched by Shri Rajeev Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India on 14 Jan. 1986 with the main objective of pollution abatement, to improve the water quality by Interception, Diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and present toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified grossly polluting units entering in to the river. In Feb 1985, the Central Ganga Authority (CGA) with the PM as Chairman was formed, with an initial budget of Rs 350 crore to administer the cleaning of the Ganga and to restore it to pristine condition by our late PM Rajiv Gandhi. In June 1985, the Ganga Project Directorate (GPD) was established as a wing of the Department of Environment. Under GAP I pollution abatement works were taken up in 25 class I towns. So far, 259 schemes in 25 towns of Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar and WB have been completed and Rs 451.70 crore spent under GAP I. A sewage treatment capacity of 865 mld has been created under the programme so far. GAP I has been declared complete on Mar. 31. 2000. GAP I was extended to GAP II which was approved in phases from 1993 to 1996 covering 4 major tributaries of Ganga, namely, Yamuna, Gomti, Damodar and Mahananda. This action plan covers pollution abatement works in 95 towns in 7 states along the polluted stretches of 4 rivers. The total approved cost of the action plan is Rs. 1498.86 crore, which was initially approved on 50:50 cost sharing basis between the Central and State governments. Later, GAP II was merged with NRCP in Dec. 1996. NRCP was converted into a 100% centrally funded scheme on the pattern of GAP I in Nov. 1998. The land cost
after Mar.31, 1997 was however to be borne by the States. The program of river cleaning was extended to other major rivers of the country under two separate schemes of GAP Phase - II and the National River Conservation Plan (NRCP).
The objectives of the Ganga Action Plan are as under. Control of non-point pollution from agricultural run off, human defecation, cattle wallowing and throwing of unburnt and half burnt bodies into the river. Research and Development to conserve the biotic, diversity of the river to augment its productivity. New technology of sewage treatment like Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and sewage treatment through afforestation has been successfully developed. Rehabilitation of soft-shelled turtles for pollution abatement of river have been demonstrated and found useful.Resource recovery options like production of methane for energy generation and use of aquaculture for revenue generation have been demonstrated.
Organisational Structure of the GAP (now NRCP)>>Arrangements at Central levelThe river cleaning program was started with GAP in 1985 under the aegis of GPD established under the MOE&F. A CGA under the chairmanship of the PM was constituted to finalise the policy framework and to oversee the implementation of GAP. The Chief Ministers (CMs) of the concerned States, Union Ministers and Secretaries of the concerned Central Ministries and Experts were its members. The GAP was later extended to GAP II in 1993 and was broad-based in the form of NRCP in 1995. The GAP II was merged with NRCP in December 1996. Since then a single scheme of NRCP is under implementation as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. The CGA was renamed as National River Conservation Authority (NRCA) with a larger mandate to cover all the programmes supported by the NRCD.The functions of the NRCA are as follows: To lay down, promote and approve appropriate policies and programs (long and short term) to achieve the objectives. To examine and approve the priorities of the NRCP. To mobilize necessary financial resources To review the progress of implementation of approved programs and give necessary directions to the Steering Committee, and To take all such measures as may be necessary to achieve the objectives.
>>Arrangements at the State levelSince the treatment of the municipal wastes is a principal component of the Action Plan, the State governments and its agencies have a substantial responsibility for the preparation and execution of these projects. In UP, the Urban Development Department has been identified as the nodal department. Subject to the supervision of the nodal department, different state government agencies are assigned the work of individual scheme preparation and execution. There is an inter-departmental committee with the secretary of the nodal department as the convener: to screen the schemes before sponsoring, indicating their inter se priority, to under-write State Governments role or contribution in the execution/maintenance of the project as may be necessary for the proper fulfillment of the objectives of the schemes, to ensure inter-departmental coordination at the state level, to review physical and financial progress from time to time, and to arrange for furnishing such information as is required by the NRCD.
>>Arrangements at the Town LevelAt the local level, the responsibilities of respective implementation, operation and maintenance were rested with mostly the local offices of the para-statal agencies. For example, in Kanpur, the local office of the U.P. Jal Nigam was renamed as Ganga Pollution Control Authority which looked after creation and O&M of the assets. The role of the municipal councils was limited to overseeing the implementation and operation. For monitoring of industrial pollution, the regional offices of the State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs) were made responsible. In addition to the SPCBs, Citizens monitoring committees (CMPs) were an important part of the institutional arrangement. These committees were thought of for monitoring of GAP at the local level. CMPs were to be mainly constituted for monitoring of STPs and sewage related issues of pollution.
>>Costs & Status of GAP STATE-WISE SANCTIONED COST OF GAP
>>Status of Allocation and Utilization of Funds Under Ganga Action Plan by GAP States:Allocation and utilization of funds give target and actual created capacity of Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). It is seen that Rs.247.5 crores were sanctioned to create 1097.9 MLD of STP capacity out of which Rs.228.3 crores were spent and STPs of 1016.6 MLD capacity were created. The states of Bihar, UP, WB and Uttarakhand had set a target of 135.50 MLD, 430.17 MLD, 493.94 MLD and 38.25 MLD and achieved 122.0 MLD, 385.06 MLD, 481.07 MLD and 28.50 MLD respectively. So far Rs. 247.52 cr. has been released for the 4 GAP states excluding Jharkhand for construction of STPs of which Rs. 228.33 cr. has been utilized and 92.6% of the STP capacity target set has been achieved. The Eleventh Plan outlay for NRCP is Rs.2100 crore for all the rivers of the country, during the years 2007-08, 2008-09 and 2009-10, the actual expenditure/approved outlay has been Rs.252.93 cr., Rs.254 cr. and Rs.276 cr. (BE). Thus, during the first 3 years of the Eleventh plan, the expenditure on NRCP has been only of the order of Rs.782.93 cr. leaving about Rs.1317 cr. to be spent during the remaining 2 yrs. (2009-10 and 2010-11) of the current 5 Year Plan. Also MOEF has stated that NRCP allocations are made State-wise and not Townwise. Based on the data collected from the states, during visits and the data made available by MOEF, during 2007-08, a sum of Rs. 374.73 cr. was released by the Central government to the five GAP states which includes Rs. 13.40 cr. of Jharkhand (sanctioned but not released) by the Centre of which Rs. 324.24 cr. was utilized. A sum of Rs.149.57 cr. so far has been released by the centre for the current financial year to 3 states i.e. UP, WB and Uttarakhand of which Rs.41.47 cr. was utilized. Apart from NRCP, Central funds are also available to states under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). A number of STP projects in some of the cities on the Ganga are under preparation. No funds have been released as of March 2009 under JNNURM for these projects.
>>Supreme Court of IndiaThe Honble Supreme Court of India in its directives dated 5th December, 2007 stated that If further funds are allocated by the Union of India, the Planning Commission Member In- Charge of Water Resources may verify whether those funds are duly utilized for the States effectively.The Supreme Court has been working on the closure and relocation of many of the industrial plants like tulsi along the Ganges and in 2010 the government declared the stretch of river between Gaumukh and Uttarkashi an "eco-sensitive zone".>>Namami GangeUnder the guidance of our PM Shri Narendra Modi, the budget tabled in Parliament on July 10, 2014, the Union Finance Minister Arun Jaitley announced an integrated Ganga development project titled Namami Gange and allocated 2,037 crore for this purpose. The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) has allocated more than Rs.2,000 crore to start the process of cleaning the Ganga river in the budget for the current fiscal year. Finance minister Arun Jaitely announced an integrated Ganga conservation mission, called Namami Gange, with an outlay of Rs.2,037 crore for the year ending next 31 March. Jaitley said that the mission is being launched because a substantial amount of money has been spent on cleaning and conserving the Ganga in the past, but those efforts havent yielded results. He allocated Rs.100 crore for preparation of detailed project reports on interlinking of rivers, and set aside a sum of Rs.100 crore for the development and beautification of the ghats in Kedarnath, Haridwar, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Patna and Delhi. Jaitley also proposed setting up a non-resident Indian (NRI) fund to finance special projects and harness the enthusiasm of the NRI community to contribute towards the conservation of river Ganga. We wholeheartedly endorse the realization of past failures (in cleaning the Ganga), said Manoj Misra, convener of Yamuna Jiye Abhiyaan, a Delhi-based organization to revive the Yamuna river. But hopefully the planners also understand that we cannot remain respectful to Ganga and yet disregard its integrity as an ecological system by interfering at will with it, in the name of either river-linking or building dams and barrages on it. The
government also announced a project to develop inland waterways called Jal Marg Vikas. The first phase of the national waterways will be developed between Allahabad and Haldia. The 1,620-km project will be completed over a period of six years at a cost of Rs.4,200 crore.>>Status of GAPAs of today GAP has totally come to a stand still and almost all the assets are in shambles. Four tannery wastewater pumping stations do function, but are often overloaded, and when power is out in Kanpur (on an average up to 8 hours a day, sometimes 14 hours a day), the DG sets, provided to meet the power failure, run on a continuous basis but this is a very costly affair. This does not seem to be practical and feasible in the long run. The sewage treatment plants at Jajmau are facing a power shortage of an hour on an average daily basis. In addition, the 36 MLD UASB plant is functional with an efficiency of removing only 50% of BOD, COD and suspended matter, largely due to the fact that the order that tanneries remove the chromium from their waste strea...