Gathering Data Three Possibilities The Center for Academic Excellence presents...
The Writing Process 1.Discovery. 2.Determining Rhetorical Stance. 3.Invention and Pre-Writing. 4.Gathering Data. 5.Planning and Organizing. 6.Outlining. 7.Composing/Drafting. 8.Reviewing. 9.Revising and Rewriting. 10.Editing. 11.Proofreading. 12.Publishing. There are no final draftsonly deadlines.
The Preliminaries: Evaluating Sources All sources must be evaluated, but especially Internet sources. Valid sources lend backing to our claims and give us access to expert opinion, advice, and argument. The following sources are essential: 1.Books 2.Periodicals 3.Internet 4.Library databases 5.Lectures 6.Interviews 7.Documentaries, etc.
Why Periodicals? What does periodical mean? Periodical literature is more current. Books show us where the Great Conversation has been and are a firm foundation for critical thinking. Periodicals show us where the Conversation is going. They are closer to the cutting-edge than are books.
Internet Sources Why are Internet sources questionable? How do we recognize a reliable source? Which Internet encyclopedia is not a good source? Does that mean we cant use it?
Balance The main thing, when using sources, is to achieve balance. A thoughtful researcher will consult books, periodicals, Internet sources, and academic databases. Seek to achieve this academic balance in your bibliographies.
Methods of Gathering Data As in all things, there are different strokes for different folks. Some people favor one research method over another, so we will take a brief look at three popular methods for gathering and saving data.
Bibliographic Card:..., then record the exact bibliographic information. Quotation Card: Give each quotation card a number corresponding to your bibliographic card. Quotation Card: Finally, Note the page number. Quotation Card: Record each quotation from your text on a separate 3x5 card, whether direct, paraphrased, or summarized. It is always a good idea to put direct quotations in quotation marks. 1.Note Card Method 1 1 1 1 Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Vintage, 1989. Jewish children didnt like the fairy tale Hansel and Gretel after the Holocaust. 1 Bibliographic Card: Number a card for each source that you read... p. 8
Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Vintage, 1989. 1 Sale, Roger. Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E.B. White. Cambridge, Massachussetts: Harvard UP, 1979. 37-8. 2 Zipes, Jack. Dont Bet On the Prince: Contemporary Feminist Fairy Tales in North America and England. 1987. New York: Routledge, 1989. 3 2 2 1 1 Jewish children didnt like the fairy tale Hansel and Gretel after the Holocaust. p. 8 The story of Cinderella may have had its origins in China, which views small feet as particularly beautiful. p. 67
Write the page number for each quotation you find useful, then record the quotation, whether direct, paraphrased, or summarized. It is a good idea to put direct quotations in quotation marks. Record the bibliographic information at the top of the page for each book that you read. 2.Research Notebook Method Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Vintage, 1989. p. 8 Jewish children didnt like the fairy tale Hansel and Gretel after the Holocaust. p. 9 The German government actually dropped the story from the curriculum.
Research Box 3.Photocopy, Highlight, and Dump it in a Box Method Shakespeare, William (1564-1616) Perhaps one of the greatest play- wrights ever to have lived, William Shakespeare was born during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Shakespeare withdrew from school at twelve to help with the family business, which makes his later success all the more remarkable. Photocopy, cut out, or print pages that seem useful to you, highlighting pertinent infor- mation. Toss all your highlighted information in a box for later. You will eventually sort through, perforate, and then file your research in a three-ringed binder. Shakespeare, William (1564-1616) Perhaps one of the greatest play- wrights ever to have lived, William Shakespeare was born during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Shakespeare withdrew from school at twelve to help with the family business, which makes his success all the more remarkable.
Timing is of the Essence Now that you are ready to start your research, please pace yourself. You should not leave research until the last minute. Identify several sources, and then set to work quickly, educating yourself on the issues at hand. Enjoy the opportunity, and good luck!
PowerPoint Presentation by Mark A. Spalding, BA, MEd, MA, 2007. The End