Generative grammar power point presentation,, ulfa

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  • 1.THE POWER OF GENERATIVE- TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR This grammar will generate well-formed syntactic structures (e.g. sentences) of the language. This grammar will have a finite (i.e. limited) number of rules but will be capable of generating an infinite number of well- formed structures. The rules of this grammar give recursiveness, that is the capacity to be applied more than once in generating a structure. This grammar is also capable of revealing the basis two other phenomena: How some superficially distinct sentences are closely related. How some superficially similar sentences are in fact distinct.

2. CRITISIZM OF GENERATIVE- TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR It is far from clear what contribution Generative- Transformational Grammar is likely to make to language teaching methodology." Silalahi (1993), " 3. Many teachers of English as a second language assume that Generative-Transformational Grammar is pedagogically unadaptable to the needs of a secondary curriculum. It means that it is not applicable to language teaching. 4. There are two important reasons: The first reason is that the explication of the theory is directed more towards linguists, psychologists and mathematicians than toward teachers of English. The second reason is that the criticism of this theory by other linguists made the concept more complicated. 5. THE IMPLICATION OF GENERATIVE- TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR IN ELT Actually, there might be still many other linguists who accept that Generative- Transfromational Grammar can be contributed in teaching and learning process. Silalahi (1993) in her paper concentrates more on the opinions which can see the contribution of Generative-Transformational Grammar to the teaching of grammar. 6. Dealing with the process of learning and acquisition These two terms are different in case they are used to separated between the first language acquisition and the second language acquisition learning. In learning second language, it is a conscious activity, while the first language acquisition deals with unconsious one. In language acquisition the focus is communication or reception of a message as opposed to syntax and grammar as in language learning. 7. Saporta (in Silalahi,1993) claims that the main contribution of Generative-Transformational Grammar is to provide relevant data which enables textbook writers to base their material on the most adequate description. 8. If someone wants to apply this Generative- Transformational Grammar, there should be a clear differences between scientific grammar and pedagogical grammar. 9. WHAT IS A SCIENTIFIC GRAMMAR? It provides STRUCTURAL DESCRIPTION SEMANTIC INTERPRETATIO N 10. WHAT IS A PEDAGOGICAL GRAMMAR? A COLLECTION OF MATERIAL 11. GENERATIVE- TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR CAN BE APPLIED IN THE FORM OF PEDAGOGICAL GRAMMAR (IN TEACHING ENGLISH GRAMMAR) 12. Thomas (in Silalahi,1993) who is convinced with his contribution of Generative-Transformational Grammar, suggests that in the beginning of teaching, the teachers should teach the kernel sentence first. Kernel sentences consist of: Simple; Declarative; Active with no complex verb or noun phrase. Later on the students are taught to construct passive, negative sentences in the form of Transformational Grammar. 13. Why should the teacher know the theory of language structure? 14. Do not only teach the language TEACHER Teach the rules how the sentences are produced 15. The stages of teaching second language The teachers should use relatively uncomplicated construction ideally. The teachers would begin with the simplest meaningful utterences in language. The teachers present simple construction first before moving on to the more complex ones 16. THE SIMPLEST KIND OF ENGLISH SENTENCES IS THE INTRANSITIVE SENTENCES Examples: The children swim People laugh 17. OTHER MATTERS MUST SURELY BE CONSIDERED Meaningfulness to the learners; Utility of the structure being learned; Appropriateness for age group. But the concept of progressing from the simple to the more complex should not be ignored 18. So, Generative-Transformational Grammar can serve as a guide to help us to determine whether it is a simple or more complicated sentence form. 19. WHICH SENTENCE IS EASIER TO LEARN? Or It is a big ball The Teachers put the book on the table 20. The best ways for the students to generate sentences are: Preparing some examples and Excercise are used to have the students supply sentence elements. 21. THERE ARE SOME RULES FOR STUDENTS TO CREATE (GENERATE) UTTERENCES One of the phrase structural rules in Transformational Grammar is the following example: 22. Stage one The boy writes Sentence NP VP Det N V The boy writes 23. Stage two The clever boy writes Sentence NP VP Det adj N V The clever boy writes 24. Stage three A beautiful girl sings a beautiful song Sentence NP VP Det Adj N V NP Det Adj N a beautiful girl sings a beautiful song 25. Stage four The man writes a long letter in the class Sentence NP VP Det N V NP PP Det adj N Prep NP Det N The man writes a long letter in the class 26. TEACHERS OF ENGLISH MAY ALSO PREPARE THE FOLLOWING EXERCISES 1. Phrase structural rules can be considered kernel. In presenting of a foreign language sentences representing kernels ought to be taught first. Examples: The girl laugh (Det N V) The children swim in the beach (Det N V Prep Det N) 2. Expansion of the verb section by applying auxiliary. Examples: The man laughed is expanded as follows: The man could laugh. The man has laughed. The man is laughing. The man could have laughed. 27. 3. Interrogative Transformation. Example: The man is here = Is the man here? The man hits the ball = Does the man hit the ball? 4. Expansion of verb section by adding adverb. Example: The man hits the ball = The man hits the ball accurately 5. Negative Transformation. Example: The man can hit the ball = The man cannot hit the ball Ali speaks English = Ali does not speak English 6. Passive Transformation. Example: The boy buys a bicycle = A bicycle is bought 28. So, in language teaching and learning process, Generative Transformational Grammar is also the most important one for the students to know the rules how they produce sentences grammatically. 29. THANK YOU