Genetics: How we become who we are to be

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Genetics: How we become who we are to be. 2.22.10 Maria James. 1.17.12 Genetics. bell ringer: pass coach p. 68-71 Connectionsyour family Decode the terminologywhat does it all mean? Word wall cards2-3 per unit. Closure: q/a Exit cards. SC Standard(s): - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetics: How we become who we are to be2.22.10Maria James

11.17.12 Genetics bell ringer: pass coach p. 68-71

Connectionsyour familyDecode the terminologywhat does it all mean?Word wall cards2-3 per unit. Closure: q/aExit cards

SC Standard(s):7-2.5Summarize how genetic information is passed from parent to offspring by using the terms genes, chromosomes, inherited traits, genotype, phenotype, dominant traits, and recessive traits. 7-1.2Generate questions that can be answered through scientific investigation.

2SpongeBob genetics 1. For each genotype below, indicate whether it is a heterozygous (He) OR homozygous (Ho).TT ___ Bb ___ DD ___ Ff ___ tt ___ dd _____Dd ___ ff ___ Tt ___ bb ___ BB _____ FF ___Which of the genotypes in #1 would be considered purebred? _______________________________Which of the genotypes in #1 would be hybrids? ________________________________________32. Determine the phenotype for each genotype using the information provided about SpongeBob.Yellow body color is dominant to blue.YY ________ Yy ________ yy _________Square shape is dominant to round.SS ________ Ss _________ ss ________43. For each phenotype, give the genotypes that are possible for Patrick.A tall head (T) is dominant to short (t).Tall = _______ Short = ________Pink body color (P) is dominant to yellow (p).Pink body = ______ Yellow body = ______

5List some family members with these common characteristicstraitWho has it?Brown hair2nd toe longer than 1st toehitch-hikers thumbwidows peakhair on middle knucklesbrown eyesrolling tongueattached or unattached ear lobes61801701601501401301201101009080706050403020109876543210This screen will disappear in 3 minutes.SecondsRemaining.Offspring inherit genetic traits from their parents. These traits are passed on to the offspring in the genetic material from each parent. Many genes that cause these traits have dominant and recessive forms.

Under what conditions does an individual express a dominant trait from its parents?

Under what conditions does an individual express a recessive trait from its parents? Bell ringer7Heredity 1. Offspring (new organisms or babies) may have the same physical characteristics, or traits, as their parents because genetic information (DNA) is passed from parent to offspring during sexual reproduction.

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Chromosomes2. Each sex cell (egg or sperm) of the parent organism (plant or animal) contains one-half of the genetic material needed to create a new organism.3. Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to another, or inheritance.

4. A structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the genetic information (DNA).

10Genes are5. A segment of DNA found on a chromosome that determines the inheritance of a particular trait.6. Genes are responsible for the inherited characteristics that distinguish (separate) one individual from another.117. Genes for a specific trait generally come in pairs.8. One gene from the pair is called an allele.

9. Genes may be expressed in two different forms.A. Genotypethe set of genes carried by the organism. What we haveB. Phenotypethe physical expression of the genes. What we see

12Inherited TraitsCharacteristics that are passed from parent to offspring. Examples of inherited traits may be eye color, eye shape, hair type, or face shape.Some inherited traits are dominant and some are recessive.Dominant trait A trait that will always be expressed in the phenotype. Alleles for dominant traits are represented by capital letters.Recessive trait A trait that will only be expressed in the phenotype if two recessive alleles are present. In the presence of a dominant trait, the recessive trait will not be expressed. Alleles for recessive traits are represented by lowercase letters.13Sexual Reproduction and DNAEach sex cell (egg or sperm) of the parent organism (plant or animal) contains one-half of the genetic material needed to create a new organism.Heredity is the passing of traits from one generation to another, or inheritance. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the genetic information (DNA).

14Create your own.genotypesRow 1Hair textureRow 2Hair colorRow 3Eye colordadCcbbBbmomCCBbBbC-curly, c- straightB- brown, b- blondeB- brown eyes, b-blue eyes

15Mendels peasggMoms genotype ____gg_____Dads genotypes ___Gg____Moms phenotype _yellow___Dads phenotype _green____Each types probability Gg 50%genotype gg- 50%Each types phenotype green-- 50% yellow 50%Homozygous momHeterozygous--dad

G gggGgGgggx16Your titleMoms genotype _________Dads genotypes _______Moms phenotype ____Dads phenotype _____Each types probability ___%genotype ____- %Each types phenotype _____-__% ________%Homozygous ______Heterozygous--_____

_ ___x17Tomatoes, and moreEx.smomdadtomatoTTTtfrecklesFfFFdiabetesddDd18Notes DNA is in chromosomes inside of the nucleus.The nucleus is the control center of the cell.DNA has all of the genetic information.DNA has the code for all genetic information.Genetic traits are physical characteristics that are passed from parent to offspring. Sexual reproduction means of the information came from each parent. Sex cells (f=egg cell, m= sperm cell) each contain of the genetic information . It is combined to produce the offspring.

8. The chromosome segments that control each trait are called genes. 9 Some traits are controlled by more than 1 gene. 10. Genes for traits come in pairs.11. Each of the gene pair is called an allele. 12. Genes may be expressed in 2 different forms. genotypeset of genes that you carryPhenotype the expression of genes (the traits that you see.)13. Examples of inherited traits may be eye color, eye shape, hair type, or face shape.14. Some inherited traits are dominant and some are recessive.Dominant trait A trait that will always be expressed in the phenotype. Alleles for dominant traits are represented by capital letters.Recessive trait A trait that will only be expressed in the phenotype if two recessive alleles are present. In the presence of a dominant trait, the recessive trait will not be expressed. Alleles for recessive traits are represented by lowercase letters.

Tomatoes, and moreEx.smomdadtomatoTTTtfrecklesFfFFdiabetesddDdtomatoesfrecklesdiabetes22Tomatoes, and moreFfFFFFfFFFFfddDDdDddddddEx.smomdadtomatoTTTtfrecklesFfFFdiabetesddDdfrecklestomatoesdiabetes23Punnett Squares15. In a Punnett square, the top of the table shows the alleles provided by one parent. 16. The alleles for the other parent are placed along the left side of the table.17. One allele from each parent is placed in the individual squares, forming a new gene pair.18. The individual squares show the possibilities of allele pairs (genotypes) in the offspring.

19. If the two alleles are the same (TT or tt), the genotype is considered purebred. If the two alleles are different (Tt), the genotype is considered hybrid.20. This example shows the inheritance of a single characteristic (height). A cross that shows the inheritance of a single characteristic is known as a monohybrid cross.

Lets make an alienAlien TraitsHeadsTailsselectedEye colorbrowngreen# of eyes23Body ColorbluepurpleHead ShapesquareroundNumber of antennae23Number of legs610Position of legsUnder bodySides of bodyNumber of wings12Has a tailyesNoHas body covering (like fur, scales, or feathers)yesNoMouth has beaklipsMaking your modelMust be 3-d.Must match your selection sheet.Must be made of recycled materials. Due on 2/16.