of 118 /118
U 15 U635 no. 10 c.3 =

German Antiaircraft Artillery

  • Author

  • View

  • Download

Embed Size (px)


German Antiaircraft Artillery

Text of German Antiaircraft Artillery

  • U15U635no. 10c.3




    WAR DEPARTMENT MIS 461WASHINGTON, February 8, 1943

    NOTICE1. Publication of Special Series is for the purpose of providing officerswith reasonably confirmed information from official and other reliable sources.2. Nondivisional units are being supplied with copies on a basis similar tothe approved distribution for divisional commands, as follows:

    INr DIV CAV DIv ARMD DivDiv Hq 8 Div Hq 8 Div Hq 11Rcn Tr 2 OrdCo 2 Rcn Bn 7Sig Co 2 Sig Tr 2 Engr Bn 7Engr Bn 7 Rcn Sq 7 Med Bn 7Med Bn 7 Engr Sq 7 Maint Bn 7QM Co 7 MedSq 7 Sup Bn 7Hq Inf Regt, 6 each 18 QM Sq 7 Div Tn Hq 8Inf Bn, 7 eatch 63 IHq Cav Brig, 3 each 6 Armd Regt, 25 each 50lIq Div Arty 8 Cav Regt, 20 each 80 FA Bn, 7 each 21FA Bn, 7 each 28 fHq Div Arty 3 Inf Regt 25

    -- FA Bn, 7 each 21 --150 ---- 150


    Distribution to air units is being made by the A-2 of Army Air Forces.

    3. Each command should circulate available copies among its officers.Reproduction within the military service is permitted provided (1) thesource is stated, (2) the classification is not changed, and (3) the informationis safeguarded. Attention is invited to paragraph 10a, AR 380-5, which isquoted in part as follows: "A document * * * will be classified and* * * marked restricted when information contained therein is for officialuse only, or when its disclosure should be * * * denied the general public."4. Suggestions for future bulletins are invited. Any correspondence relat-ing to Special Series may be addressed directly to the Dissemination Branch,Military Intelligence Service, War Department, Washington, D. C.




    The purpose of this study is twofold: to give U. S.troops a comprehensive picture of German antiaircraftartillery and its use, and at the same time to furnishU. S. antiaircraft artillerymen data by which theycan compare German methods with their own. Al-though some technical data is furnished for the latterpurpose, it is quite obvious that a study of this typecannot include all known technical details on Germanantiaircraft mat6riel and technique.


    Section I. ORGANIZATION --------------------------- 11. GENERAL ____________-___. ______------------ 12. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION ________- 13. ANTIAIRCRAFT AS A COMPONENT OF THE AIR

    FORCE-___--- --- ------------------------- 2a. General ------ 2b. Higher units ------------------------- 3

    (1) General . .-..------- --- -- 3(2) Corps ..----- - 3(3) Division -- - - - - - - - - - 4(4) Regiment ..-............. 4

    c. The .Battalion -------- _--------------- 4(1) General .- -------------------- 4(2) Heavy battalion -------------- _-- 5(3) M ixed battalion ------------------ 5(4) Light battalion .-... ......._..... 7(5) Reserve battalion --------- _-- --- 7(6) Searchlight battalion ------------- 7

    d. The Battery ---------------.------------ 8(1) General .-. 8(2) Heavy battery .-. . 8(3) Light and medium battery --------- 8(4) Searchlight battery .- .. 9-... ------- 9

    e. The Zug .-...... -... ...........-. 10f. Railway Flak IUnits-- ..- .. .......-. .... 10g. Barrage Balloon Units ... ... 11

    4. ANTIAIRCRAFT ORGANIC TO THE ARMY ------- 11a. General- .... .. ....................... 11b. Fla Battalion .--------- .----..--. 12c. Hieeresflak Abteilung..... 12d. Operational Control .- -.................... 13

    5. ANTIAIRCRAFT IN THE NAVY ---___________ ____ 13II. WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT ..-------------- ----- - 14

    6. TREND OF DEVELOPMENT---________ _ -______- 14a. Historical .... - ...---.------- . 14b. Mobility- ..... .---- 14c. Dual-Purpose Construction ....------ 15d. Multipurpose Use .-.-.... -. .. 16e. German Classification of Flak Weapons -_ 16



    Section II. WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT-Continued. Page7. TYPES OF AA GUNs _----- 17

    a. 7.92-mm Standard Machine Gun _------- 17(1) Description .---- . 17(2) Use in A A Role .... .. 17

    b. 20-rmm AA/AT Gun (Models 30 and 38)_- 20(1) Description ----- ------------- 20(2) Sights ------------------------ 23(3) 1-meter-base range-finder ---------- 25(4) Personnel ........- -... 27

    c. 20-ram Four-Barreled AA/AT Gun (Quad-ruple llount) ---------------------- 29(1) Description --------------------- 29(2) Sights-- . 30

    d. 37-amm AA/AT Gun ...---------------- 30(1) Description.-------------------- 30(2) Sights...-- 33(3) Personnel --------- -------------- 34

    e. 40-ram AA1 Gun . ..------- ------------- 34f. ,{7-rmm AA Gun .- --------------------- 35g. 50-mm AA/A T Gun ------------ 35h. 75-mm AA Gun . 36i. 88-mm Dual-Purpose Gun ----------- 37

    (1) Development . 37(2) Description ------------------- 37(3) Am1munition ..-------------------- 41(4) Fire control .----------------- 41(5) Mobility ..--------------------- 42(6) Personnel ----------------------- 42

    j. 105-amm AA Gun..------- ---------- 43(1) L)escription --------------------- 43(2) Fire control . ---------------- 44(3) Personnel..--------------------- 44

    k. 127-mm AA Gun_ ____--- ------------- 451. 150-mmn AA Gun ------------------- 45

    8. FIRE (CONT'RROI ... 46a. Solution of the AA Fire-Control Problenl__ 46b. Equtipment . .- 46

    (1) Kontmandogerdt (stereoscopic firedirector)' ...-.. ....... 46

    (2) Kontmnandohilfsgerdt (auxiliary firedirector) --- ------ I --- 49

    (3) Telescopic sight for 88-mm gun --7-. 49(4) Rladio-location equipment --------- 50


    Section II. WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT-Continued. Prge9. SEARCHLIGITS --------------------------- 51

    a. Heavy Searchlights --------------- - ---- 51(1) 1Equipment -------------------- 51(2) Mobility ----------------. - 54(3) Personnel -------------------- - 54(4) Comrnmunications ..-------------- 54

    b. Light Searchlights .-------.. 55(1) IEquipmrent ---------------.. 55(2) Mobility -___-_-_-_ ------.------ 56(3) Personnel .- ---------------- 56(4) Commnications ..................__ 56

    10. BARRAGE BALLOONS________ _ _--------- ----- 56a. General ------------------------- - ----- 56b. Description -------------------- --- - 57

    III. USE OF AA WITH FIELD FORCES . .-------- - ------- 6011. INTRODUCTION --- ..--------------------- 6012. GENERAI. PRINCIII.ES ------------ - --- 60

    a. The German Task Force __------------ --- 60b. Antiaircraft Task Force Allocation ------ 61c. Primary Missions of A .A.. 61d. Transition front AA Role to Other Roles___ 62

    13. OPERATIONAL USE AGAINST AIt TARGET,'S______ 64a. General-- --- . 64b. Protection of Columns on the larc(h ------ 64

    (1) Panzer divisions . 64(2) Other units .. -. 66

    c. 1Use in Florward Areas with Attacking U(nits_ 66(1) General . .....__... 66(2) 1Example of use with an attacking

    Panzer division 67d. Protection of Rear-Area Installations ----- 69e. Defense of Railway Trains .----------- - 70

    (1) General ------.. ------------ 70(2). Method -------------- 70

    f. Searchlights ......----------- ------ 72g. Antiaircraft IWarning Systemr . - 73

    14. OPERATIONAL USE AGAINSTI GROUND TARGETS__ 73a. General ...... ..-..---- 73b. 88-mat Dlual-Purpose Gun ------------ 74

    (1) In antitank roles .-.------------ 74(2) In other roles .....------------- 75(3) Fire-control methods ...-------- -- 76



    Continued.c. Light and Medium Flak Guns ---------- 77

    (1) In an antitank role -------------- 77(2) In other roles ------------------- 77(3) General ------------------------- 78

    15. ESTABLISHMENT OF GUN POSITIONS_____ _ ----- 78a. Heavy AA Guns -- .. . 78

    (1) For primary AA role ------------ 78(2) For other roles ------------------- 78

    b. Light and Medium AA Guns ----------- 7916. DECEPTION AND CONCEALMENT ________-______ 79

    IV. USE OF AA IN DEFENSE OF GERMANY AND REARAREAS--------------.--------- 81


    a. Responsibility ------------------------- 81b. Defense Districts --------------------- 82c. Component Arms .---- . ..------------ 84

    19. THE AA COMMAND IN AN AIR DISTRICT______ ----- 84a. Groups and Sub-Groups .. ........--- - 84b. Control Centers-- ..-........----------- 85c. Operational Units . -------- ------------ 85

    20. EMPLOYMENT OF AA GUNS ------------------ 86a. Static Guns .---------............... 86b. Use of Towers -.------------ ------------ 86c. Use of Mobile Guns .--........------- __ 86d. Use of Dummy Guns and Dummy Positions_ 88e. Disposition of AA Guns in Rear Areas - 88

    (1) General .....................- 88(2) Heavy guns .----------........... 89(3) Light and medium guns ---------- 92

    f. Fire-Control M ethods ..................... 92(1) W ith heavy guns ................. 92(2) With light and medium guns ------ 94

    21. EMPLOYMENT OF SEARCHLIGHTS- .---.--------- 95a. General ------------------------------ 95b. Equipment --------- --- ---------- - 95c. Location of Searchlights ----------------- 96

    (1) In belts ------------------------ 96(2) In concentrations .----------- . .... 96(3) In gun-defended areas -_--------- 96



    21. EMPLOYMENT OF SEAaRCHLIGHTs-COntinued.d. Searchlight Tactics- .---------------- 96

    (1) On cloudy nights- -. --------- 96(2) On nights with considerable grotund or

    industrial haze . ................... 97(3) On clear dark nights ................ 97(4) On clear moonlight nights --------- 98

    e. Dazzle and Glare .-.------- .- .--- . 9822. EMPLOYMENT OF BARRAGE BALLOONS_ _____--- 9923. AIRCRAFT-WARNIN: SYSTEM ....--------------- 100

    a. Responsibility ------------------------ 100b. Operation-- .-.........-------- 100c. Flak Intelligence Service ................ 101d. Use of Radio-Detection Devices .--------- 102

    24. PASSIVE MEANS .------------- --- - ------- 102V. CONCLUSIONS ------------------------ - -- - 106


    1. Organization of the German mixed AA battalion ------------- 62. Characteristics of German Flak weapons . .. .. .... . ..._ 183. 2-cm (20-mm) AA/AT gun 30 in action ._ 204. 2-cm (20-mm) AA/AT guln 38 in action on self-propelled mount__ 215. Sketch of Linealvisier 21 ...... 266. Sighting the target with Linealvisier 21 277. 1-meter-base range-finder in use with 3.7-cm (37-mll) AA/AT gun_ 288. 2-cm (20-mm) Flakvierling 38 on fixed support, showing ammunli-

    tion feed ... .- . .. . ...- 319. Demonstration class inspecting 3.7-cm (37-nlrl) AA/AT ginu __ 32

    10. 8.8-cm (88-rlm) dual-)purlpose gun ready for action ........ 3911. Komniandogerd(t in traveling positio.... 4712. Koinmnandogerit ready for use .--...-...... 4813. 150-cmn (60-inch) standard searchlight .... 5314. German barrage balloon -.. .... ..-- -_ 5815. Slant-range chart ..-...... 6516. 8.8-cm (88-nmln) gun in static position ---......... 8717. 4-gun layout -9018. 6-gun layout for coastal defense ------------------- 91


    1. GENERALThe German approach to the subject of military or-

    ganization is one of extreme flexibility. The underly-ing thought is that in view of the rapid progress ofscience as applied to war, organizational practice mustremain flexible if it is to take advantage promptly ofnew scientific development, to exploit various kinds ofsituations, and to cope with all types of enemies. Effi-cient combat effectiveness of an organization is alwaysconsidered a primary requisite. It should thereforebe remembered that although the organization of Ger-man antiaircraft units is founded on. certain basicprinciples, experimentation with new tactical doctrines,economy of military manpower and equipment, or theconsidered needs of a task force situation may causethe organization of certain AA units to vary fromnormal.

    2. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATIONAll German military organization is based on certain

    fundamental principles which are primarily designedto permit tactical and administrative flexibility.

    One of these fundamentals is the Einheit (unit)principle, which provides that any given arm or servicewill develop a number of standard unit groups, eachwith standard organization, leadership, training, andequipment. The unit group is an organic entity, ca-



    pable of operating independently and self-sufficientboth for tactical and administrative purposes. Withina given branch or service, each basic type of unit groupwill represent a different combination of the variouscomponents (or weapons) of that branch or service.In AA organization the unit groups are ordinarilybattalions, and the types (heavy, mixed, light, etc.)differ in organic composition with respect to their re-spective weapons (light and/or heavy guns, search-lights, etc.).

    The Einheit principle of organization has several ad-vantages. Obviously the supply and replacement ofequipment can be more readily geared to a few stand-ard types of units. The training and tactical employ-ment of a given type of unit can be standardized, anddirected with uniformity. Above all, the existence ofthese basic type-units, each so composed as to serve adifferent function, permits easy organization of anydesired type of larger unit. In the AA branch, for ex-ample, regiments are formed by combining any desirednumber of the different basic units. And the Einheitsystem is excellently designed to facilitate the construc-tion of task forces, made up of different amounts ofnecessary arms and services, in terms of the basic unitsof each arm or service required for a given mission.


    With some few exceptions, German antiaircraft unitsare an organic part of the German Air Force (Luft-waffe). German antiaircraft artillery is called Flak-


    artillerie, and is more commonly referred to as "Flak."This term is an abbreviation of "Flieger- or Flug-abwehrkanone," which means "cannon for defenseagainst aviation."

    Flak troops wear the uniform of the Luftwaffe, whichis easily distinguished from that of the Army and Navyby the gray-blue color of the'material, the lounge cutof the open collar blouse, and the plain trousers. Todistinguish the AA artillery from other branches of theAir Force, red piping is worn on the cap, and theblouses of both officers and enlisted men have this dis-tinguishing red color on the shoulder strap as liningand edging, and on the collar patches.

    Flak serving in the field is fully motorized, and unitsintended to operate with the spearhead of the attackare equipped for cross-country operation.

    Luftwaffe AA organizations and units operating withthe Army are subordinated operationally and for com-mand purposes to the Armly unit concerned, and admin-istratively (for replacements, etc.) to a parent AirForce ground unit.b. Higher Units

    (1) General.-In general, Flak units consist ofcorps, divisions, regiments, battalions, and batteries.From a practical point of view the AA corps, divi-sional, and regimental organizations are primarily com-posed of a commander, staff, and organizational troopswho coordinate and assist in the disposition and activi-ties of the basic units, the battalions (Abteilungen).

    (2) Corps.-The Flakkorps is the highest AA unit.It may be found in rear areas or with field forces, de-


    pending on the considered need for a command of thissize. There is no fixed allotment of units to this highestformation; it has been noted that the corps may containfrom two to four AA divisions. In general, when serv-ing with the field forces, an AA corps would normallycontrol the area of an army group (group of armies).It may also be found with air fleets and on some occa-sions with Panzer armies.

    (3) Division.-The Flakdivision is frequently foundin German armies. Its composition is not fixed, vary-ing from two to five regiments. In general, when withfield forces, the AA division usually operates in the areaof an army.

    (4) Regiment.--(a) Pre-war establishment.-At theoutbreak of World War II, Flak regiments were or-ganized on a standard basis of three battalions perregiment. The first two battalions were alike, eachconsisting of three batteries of heavy AA guns and twobatteries of light AA guns with organic 60-cm (light)searchlights. The third battalion consisted of threebatteries, each with nine 150-cm (heavy) searchlights.

    (b) Present organization.-At the present time thecomposition of the regiment is flexible; it may containfrom three to five battalions of any type.c. The Battalion

    (1) General.-The basic tactical AA unit is the bat-talion (Abteilung), which also has administrative func-tions. There are several known types of gun battalions,but in general these types will fall into one of threegeneral categories consisting of heavy, mixed, and lightbattalions. In this connection, it should be noted that


    in action the gun battalion commander is essentially atactical commander, the battery being the fire-controlunit. Allotment of AA units to Army field forces var-ies according to the estimated needs, but an army corpscommonly has one or more separate gun battalions per-manently attached to it during all operations, and atleast one mixed battalion will usually be found attachedto a Panzer division.

    (2) Heavy battalion.-This battalion is equippedwith either 88-mnrl or 105-rim antiaircraft guns,- orwith both, and usually consists of a headquarters withthree batteries (Batterien) each of four, or possibly six,guns. This type of organization is rare; the unit isusually found only in static positions in Germany.

    (3) Mixed battalion.-This is the more commontype of standard battalion organization incorporatingheavy AA guns. Thllere are two separate establishmentsfor these mixed battalions, one with four 88-lmn gunsper battery, the other with six. The most recent indi-cations suggest that preference is being shown for thesix-gun unit as equipment becomes available. In somecases, primarily in rear areas, 105-nmln AA guns maybe substituted for the 88-mm guns.

    The organization of this mixed battalion (fig. 1) isas follows:

    Headquarters;3 heavy batteries, each consisting of four (pos-

    sibly six) 88-rmn guns, and two 20-rnm gunsfor close protection;

    2 light batteries, each consisting of twelve 20-mm guns and four 60-cm (23.58-inch) search-

  • iZa

    - X~ ,: S

    IF L=oC

    AH~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~C ;,l j

    < A < ~~~- Y -| ;


    _i c u


    W -^

    L s ~~~~~~~~ocr b

    sK Coo

    'I CMC

    -g 2

    LZ ~~n IC IcB

    ~~1C E~~~

    O ~ ~~~ 6gu~~~~~~~IU -X


    c .

    C?, ~~, .C I.. -

    rw~~~~u E~~c

    c: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c

    I~~~~ ~cI -B--ircr~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~0


    lights. (A medium battery of nine 37-mmguns and four 60-cm searchlights is sometimessubstituted for one of the light batteries.)

    (4) Light battalion.-Two types of light gun bat-talions exist:

    (a) Headquarters;3 light batteries, each of twelve 20-mm

    guns;1 searchlight battery of sixteen 60-cm-

    searchlights.(b) Headquarters;

    2 light batteries, each of twelve 20-mmguns;

    1 medium battery of nine 37-mm guns;1 searchlight battery of sixteen '60-cm

    searchlights.(5) Reserve battalion.-In addition to the battalions

    mentioned above, there are heavy, mixed, and light re-serve battalions. These have only a small amount oforganic motor transport and are used in a static role inGermany and rear areas. Otherwise the reserve or-ganization corresponds to that of standard mobile bat-talions. The transportation of these battalions, whennecessary, is carried out by a separate transport unit.

    (6) Searchlight battalion.--Most searchlight bat-talions are composed of a headquarters and three bat-teries, each battery containing nine 150-cm (60-inch)searchlights. Sound locators are used with thesesearchlights, and although their present number perbattery varies with the employment of the search-

    500995---4-- 2


    lights in rear areas, at the beginning of the war theywere allotted on the basis of one per searchlight. Al-though mobile, most of the heavy searchlight battalionsare used only within rear and static defense areas. Thesmaller, 60-cm (23.58-inch) lights are used with 20-mm and 37-mm AA guns, and accordingly are an or-ganic part of both the light and mixed battalion, asmentioned above. Heavy searchlight battalions arevery often grouped to form searchlight regiments,which operate as such only in rear areas.

    d. The Battery(1) Geeiral7.-The battery (Batterie) is the normal

    fire unit of AA artillery. Several types of batteriesexist:

    (2) 1HXeavy batftery.-A heavy battery in the mixedbattalion is normally organized as follows:

    (a) Combat echelon, consisting of-Battery headquarters,Gun and instrument detachments,Communication detachments,Light Flak section,Anmrnunition detacllment,Combat train.

    (b) Ration transport.(c) Baggage transport.(3) Light and mnedium battery.-A light battery in a

    mixed battalion comprises four gun sections and one60-cm searchlight section of four searchlights (one


    searchlight is normally allotted to each gun section),and is subdivided as follows:

    (a) Combat echelon, consisting of-Battery headquarters,Gun and searchlight detachments,Communication detachment,Ammunition detachment,Combat train.

    (b) Ration transport.(c) Baggage transport.(4) Searchlight battery.-The heavy searchlight bat-

    tery is usually organized as follows:(a) Combat echelon, consisting of-

    Battery headquarters,Searchlight detachments,Communication detachment,Combat train.

    (b) Ration transport.(c) Baggage translort.The exact employment of the light 60-cm searchlight

    batteries is not knownl, but it is believed that the batteryis subdivided into sections to permnit employment ofindividual detachments with gun sections. This prac-tice is somewhat similar to the system used with search-lights which are an organic part of the light gunbatteries of mixed battalions. In the latter case, thefour searchlights in the section are broken down intofour detachments, thus allowing one light searchlightfor each gun section.


    e. The ZugThe closest U. S. military equivalent of the Zug is

    "platoon." It is the smallest operational unit abovethe single gun and ordinarily applies only to the lightor medium gun platoon of three guns, although in rarecases two heavy guns may operate as a platoon. Inthe heavy searchlight battery, there are usually threeplatoons of three lights each.

    f. Railway Flak UnitsAntiaircraft guns are also mounted on railway cars.

    Railway Flak units are organized into regiments, bat-talions, and batteries. The precise composition of theunits is not known, but it is believed that the regimentalorganization forms a pool from which units may bedrawn as necessity arises, either for mobile defense orfor train-protection purposes. Although Railway Flakunits are part of the Air Force and are administeredthrough the usual Air Force channels, it is probablethat train-protection detachments are operationallysubordinate to the transport authorities. There is alsosome evidence that AA guns provided for the defenseof military trains may in certain circumstances bemanned by organic Army personnel. It is interestingto note that the AA guns on railway mounts may belight or heavy, and may consist of any of the followingcalibers: 20-mm (single- or four-barreled), 37-mm, 75-mm (probably), 88-mm, 105-mm, and possibly even the150-mm.


    g. Barrage Balloon UnitsBarrage balloon units are part of the Air Barrage

    Arm (Luftsperrwaffe), which is a branch of the AirForce. The personnel wear the uniform of the GermanAir Force Antiaircraft Artillery. The exact organiza-tion of current barrage balloon units is not known,mainly owing to the fact that at the outbreak of warGerman use of barrage balloons was on the whole stillin the experimental stage, and that since that time, inaccordance with German principles, the organizationhas varied at different places because of different needs.The best information available, however, indicates thatthe standard barrage balloon unit is the battalion, con-sisting of 3 batteries each manning about 16 balloons.In the early years of the war, the smallest unit consistedof a motorized squad of 12 men, each squad equippedwith 2 balloons-one for manning and one in reserve.


    Although German AA artillery as an arm is an or-ganic part of the Air Force, there are independent AAbattalions which belong to the infantry and artilleryof the Army, and are therefore organically a part ofthe German Army ground forces. The general termHeeresflak is applied to these independent units whendistinguishing them, in staff tables or on orders of bat-tle in chart form, as a category distinct from othertroops, and also when referring to organic Army AA


    troops as distinguished from the standard Air ForceAA troops. Actually, the term Ileeresfiak covers twodistinct types of units: the Flabataillon 1 and the Heer-esflak Abteiluqg. The term Fla is an abbreviation of"Flugabwehr," which means "AA defense."

    b. Fla BattalionFlabatail/on troops belong to the infantry arm and

    wear its distinctive white piping. There are two dif-ferent types of Fla battalions: the battalion of six com-panies in which the company apparently is the tacti-cal unit, and the battalion of three companies in whichthe battalion itself is the tactical unit, although itscompanies may on occasion be found operating inde-pendently. The Fla battalion is equipped with standardmachine guns, and either 20-mm (both single- and four-ba1reled) or 37-mm AA guns, all on self-propellednlounts. These guns are available for additional usein antitank or other roles against ground targets.

    c. Heeresflak AbteilungHeeresflak Abteil/llq troops belong to the artillery

    arm and wear its distinctive red piping. Heeresflakbattalions are mechanized, and in most cases consist ofthree heavy batteries each of four 88-rmml guns, andtwo light batteries each of either twelve 20-mm guns ornine 37-mm guns. All equipment may be used in AAand in antitank or other ground roles.

    'The Flia "btlttalion" is ordinarily referred to in German military usage asBataillon rather thian by the more customary term Abteilung (see below).


    d. Operational ControlThe operational control of these special types of AA

    units is extremely flexible. Although they are normallyallotted from a GHQ pool to an army, army corps, ordivision for permanent organic AA protection, theyhave been known to be subordinated to Luftwaffe Flakdivisions and regiments.

    5. ANTIAIRCRAFT IN THE NAVYThe German Nhvy mans AA artillery in certain

    coastal forts. Except for being eliplaced on perma-nent mounts, these AA guns do not differ materiallyfrom the normal Flak armament, and the same appliesto AA guns on board ships. From the point of view oforganization of rear-area defenses, it should be notedthat the AA armament in these coastal forts, as wellas the AA guns on board Navy ships undergoing re-pair or at rest in harbor, is used at need as a part ofthe AA ground defense of the immltediate area.


    6. TREND OF DEVELOPMENTa. Historical

    With the tremendous strides in development of com-bat aviation during the period between World War Iand World War II, it became increasingly evident thata corresponding development of AA materiel and tacticswas quite necessary. Although the Germans were lim-ited in their military establishment as a result of WorldWar I, they nevertheless conducted extensive researchand tests to develop new AA mat6riel. During thispost-war period, also, came experiments with mechan-ized armored vehicles, and new doctrine as to the possi-bilities of their employment. Under the circumstances,it was only logical that some experimentation shouldtake place with the object of designing a gun whichcould be used against either aircraft or mechanizedground vehicles. In 1936 the Spanish Civil War gavethe Germans a chance to test their first efforts alongthese lines; in 1939 the campaign in Poland permitteda full test of the refined product, and results were usedas a guide on which to base standardization and furtherdevelopment. The later campaign in France and othercampaigns have, of course, served as further provinggrounds.b. Mobility

    One of the main results of the battle experiences ofthe Germans has been vindication of the concept that



    AA guns used in any but purely static positions mustbe highly mobile, and that even in static situations itis to the best interests of protection against hostileaircraft to have a certain proportion of the AA artillerydefenses in a highly mobile state for purposes of flexi-bility. Furthermore, the increased use of AA weaponswith mobile units in the field has given a great spurto development of AA mobility.c. Dual-Purpose Construction

    With the practical tests of 1936 in the Spanish CivilWar came the realization that with some modificationsthe then current AA weapons would have definite pos-sibilities as effective antitank weapons. This findingwas the more acceptable in view of the German militaryprecept of acting on the offense wherever possible.The possibility of employing AA guns in forward areasin an offensive role definitely removed them from thestatus of defensive weapons and placed them in thecategory of important offensive weapons. The PolishCampaign, the French Campaign, and the early suc-cesses of Rommel in the Libyan Desert are eloquentproofs of the increasing development and use of AAweapons against mechanized ground targets. It shouldbe remembered, of course, that AA gunnery demandsweapons with a high rate of fire, rapid fire-control cal-culation, fast tracking speeds, and a high muzzlevelocity. These factors contributed materially in thedecision to adapt these weapons to an AT role. Theoriginal difficulty in making these AA weapons dual-purpose rested mainly in securing a satisfactory mobilecarriage or mount which could withstand equally well


    the shock and recoil of high-elevation AA fire, and ofhorizontal and subborizontal fire.d. Multipurpose Use

    With satisfactory development and use of the AAgun as an AT weapon came the logical discovery thatthe main AA/AT weapons could be used against targetsother than aircraft or tanks. Thus we hear of the88-mm guns being used against fortified gun positions,as well as for the direct support of ground troops, forinterdiction fire against enemy communications, andfor fire against river and coastal targets. We evenhear of its being mounted on IT-boats. As a result ofthese and similar experiences, German field. com-manders have found AA artillery to be one of theirmost useful weapons, and there is evidence of a trendsuggesting that German artillery of the future, up toa certain caliber, will include an even greater proplor-tion of AA weapons placed on multipurpose mounts.e. German Classification of Flak Weapons

    Although Flak weapons are generally referred toby the United Nations as light Flak and heavy Flak,probably because of the classification of AA Abteilun-gen into heavy (mixed) and light units, the Germansdivide their Flak guns into the three general classifica-tions: light, medium, and heavy. Light guns includeonly the various types of 20-mm Flak weapons; mediumguns include the 37-nrm, 40-mm, 47-mm, and reported50-mm Flak weapons; and heavy Flak consists of the75-mm, 88-mrn, l.05-nrm, 127-mnm, and 150-rmm weapons.Of these guns, only the 20-rim, 37-nmm, 88-nlmm, 105-mrl,


    and 150-mm are used by the Germans to any greatextent.

    7. TYPES OF AA GUNS (Fig. 2)a. 7.92-mm Standard Machine Gun

    (1) Description.-The Germans now use one stand-ard machine gun to fill all roles; namely, the air-cooled7.92-mm (.31-inch) MG 34. This is considered a lightmachine gun when used with its light bipod, and aheavy machine gun when used with the heavy tripodmount. It is fitted in special single and dual mountsfor AA purposes, and is also found in armored cars,carriers, and tanks. It fires all the types of 7.92-mm(.31-inch) anmrunition which the Gerrmlan rifles andaircraft machine guns use. But lately there has beena marked emphasis on the use of armor-piercing amnmu-nition in all 7.92-mmn weapons. Belt feed is normallyemployed for the machine gun, but it is quite conmolnfor two or more 50-round belts to be joined end to end,thus reducing the delays involved in the changing ofbelts. A special belt drumn, holding one 50-round beltcompactly coiled within it, may be fitted on the left ofthe gun when the weapon is used as a light machinegun or for AA purposes. The gun weighs 15/.) )ounlldswithout the mount. The barrel is changed after each250 rounds of continuous fire.

    (2) Use in AA Role.-On the AA mount, this nma-chine gun is used organically by all branchles of theGerman Army for local protection against low-flyingaircraft. It supp)lements the fire furnished by rifles.Strictly speaking, this weapon is not classed as a Flak


    Weapon - 20-mm AA/AT 20mrld AAAT 37-mm AA/AT 40-mm AA 47-mm AAgun gulnl gun gun gun

    German name ---- m Flak 30 2-cm Flakier- 3.7-cm Flak 3. 4-cm Flak 36 4.7-cm Flakand 38. ling 38. lin 37

    Caliber (inches) .79 . .79 - 1.45 1.57 -------- 1.85Muzzle velocity 2,950 (HIE), 2,950 (HE), 2,690 -..... 2,95620

    -._- ---(foot-seconds). 2,720 (AP). 2,72(0 (AP).Maximum horizon- 5,230 ....-... 5,230 ........... 8,744 . . 12,300 10,35)

    tal range (yards).Maximum vertical 12,465 .. ,465,46 5 -1 2322,300 .. 22300

    range (feet).Effective ceiling 7,215 (with self- 7,215(withself- 13,775 (with 16,200 ...... 0(feet). destroying destroying self- destroy-

    tracer, 6 sees tracer, 6 sees ing tracer, 14timeof flight). tlneofflight). sees time of

    flight).Theoretical rate of 280 (Model30), 1,680tol,920_.. 150--- .. 120. . .25fire (rounds per 420 to 480

    minute). (Model 38).Practical rate of fire 12(Model 30), 700 to 800 -60. 80 15(rounds per mill- 180 to 220

    ute). (Model 38).Weight of projectile_ 4.1 oz (HiE), 4.1 oz (HE), I Ib 6oz (liE), 2.2 lbs- __ :. 3.3 Ibs ___5.2oz (AP). 5.2 (AP). 1 lb 8 oz

    (A P).

    Weight of complete 10.6 oz (1HE), 10.6 oz (HE),round. 11.6 oz (AP). 11.6 oz (AP).

    Weight in action-- .906 lbs . 2,979 lbs-...... 3,400 lbs.__ 4,234 lbs- 3,40( IbsWeight in draught__ 1,650 lbs .-- - 4,866 Ibs- |Elevation .----- - -- 12 to +900 -10 to +100_ -10 to +85_ -5 to +90' _ --10 to +850Traverse -v 360.- ---- 360 - 3 .60360. ------ 36 0 ILength of barrel:

    Calibers _ .6 - 65 - -50 60Feet or inches__ J 4 ft 3.2 in . 4 ft 3.2 in -- ___- 6 ft -.------- 7 ft 10.2 in .................

    Remarks .-. . .... Standard light Standard light Standard me- Bofors 1936 Skoda 1937Flak. Auto- Flak. Con- dium Flak. M o d e I. M o d e 1.matic, recoil- sists of four 2- Automatic Very few of This Czechoperated; sin- cm Flak 38 recoil - oper- these guns gun has ap-glc-shot or guns on a ated; single- are used by parentlycontinuous quadruple shot or con- the Ger- never beenfire as re- mount. The tinnous fire mans. adopted byquired; am- magazines of as required; the Ger-munition 2 guns can be ammunition mans forloaded in flat- e h a n g e d loaded in any exten-box maga- while the re- clips holding sive use.zines contain- maining 2 are 6 rounds.ing 20 rounds; firing.normal pene-tration per-formancewith AP, 45mm (1.77inches) of ar-mor at 100yards.

    *Little information is available concerning this gun. The data shown are from German sources

    Figure 2.-Characteristics


    50-mm AA/ 75-mm AA 88-mm dual- 105-mm AA 127-mm AA 150-mm AAAT gun gun purpose gun gun gun gun *

    5-cm Flak 41 7.5-cm Flak L/ 8.8-cm Flak 18 10.5-cm Flak 12.7-cm Flak 15-cm Flak39.60. (also 36and 38). 38. 38.

    1.97 -- 2.95.... 3.46 . 4.14 . 5 5.91.-2,780 ----------- 2,755 5-..-... - 1 2,890 --.------- 1 2,500 3,450.

    -......------- 15,500_-.-..... 1,600 --.. . .... 19,100 -.-------- 19,600 -. . ._. 34,000.

    ........... 37,000_- ... . .35,700 4-..00 41302,000 66,0.

    .... -- - 30,000 --------- 34,770 .. 37,000 . 35,000 to 40,0001 40.()00 to 45,000.

    ...... 25 ----- - 25 :.15 ---- - 12 .---- 12.

    15 ...- 12 to 15 -.------ 8 to 10 - 8 to 8.

    14.3 1bs -...... 20 lbs 1 oz (HE), 32 lbs 11 oz 55 lbs -. .... 88.6 lbs.20 lbs 5 oz (HE).(HE), 21 lbs

    oz (A P).--. . .............. 31 lbs 11/' oz ---- _- ____ - _____

    (HE), 32 lbs(IIE), 33 lbs(A P). __ _

    -2.9..toi.s.. 2. tll ... 4.9 tons - 11.56 tons ... --- -------.. -

    .. . . .. -7.1 tons . .-... .-...-----30 to +85 -3 to +850 --- -- 30 to +87 -0 to +90 __

    -- 360.. 2 x 3600 - 36 - 3-00

    ..... 60 ---- - 56 .--.... 60 .-- 50 ------I. .. ---- . 14 ft 9 in-l- . .16 ft 1.8 in.. 20 ft 8.4in .-_ 20 ft 10 in ---.

    Reputed to Krupp 1938 Standard heavy E q u i p p e d Germannaval Dual - purposeuse b o t h Model. This AA/AT gun with auto- AA gun. coast defenseHE a n d gun is grad- for mobile use. matic fuze- Little re!i- and AA weap-AP. Very ually being HE shells are setter; used able infor- on, manned tolittle au- superseded separately pro- mostly in a iation is a large extentthentic in- by the 8.8- vided with static role, al- available. by Navy per-formation is cm Flak. both time fuze though mo- sonnel.available and percussion bile versionsconcerning fuze. APshells are known tothis weapon. are provided exist.

    with a basefuze. The fir-ing mechanismcan be set tohand, but thenormal methodfor AA is au-matic.

    of information, and their accuracy is questionable.

    of German Flak weapons.


    weapon, the 20-rnm cannon usually being considered thesmallest caliber in the Flak class.b. 20-mm AA/AT Gun (Models 30 and 38) (figs. 3

    and 4)(1) Description.-The 2-em 2 Flak 30 (.79-inch):

    was introduced into the German Navy in 1930 and into

    Figure 3 .- 2-cm (20-mm) AA/AT gun 30 in action.the German Air Force in 1935. It has been the mainaranlimellt of light AA units, and( can be used in an

    2The G(elrlan practice is to designate gunl types in terms of centimetersr;athle' thitll amillilmeters, and in all referelnces made hereafter, the (Germnanstvle will he followed in the paragraphs c(oncernled with descriptions of)pl tti


    antitank role. The gun is fed by a flat box-magazinecontaining 20 rounds, and is recoil-operated. It has adetachable barrel, and is provided with automatic andsingle-shot mechanisms. The trigger mechanism ispedal-operated. The gun may be mounted on road orrailway vehicles.

    Figure 4.-2-cm (20-mm) AA/AT gun 38 in action on self-propelledmount.

    It is normally transp)orted on a sinfgle-axle trailer.This trailer may be drawn by motor tr:ansplort or byhorse, and is easily manhandled. Thlle gun and itsmount may also be split into loads for transport in par-ticularly (difficult country. The gun is normally firedwith its nlounit on the ground and with the trailer


    removed. It can, however, be fired from the trailer inan emergency (i. e., on the march), rough traversebeing obtained by pushing the trailer around.

    A later version of the model 30 is contained in the2-cm Flak 38, which does not differ materially from theearlier version apart from having higher theoreticaland practical rates of fire. Particulars pertaining tothe 2-cm Flak 38 are as follows:Muzzle velocity (HE) ------------------_ 2,950 f/sMuzzle velocity (AP)__ _ -. .._.....__ 2,720 f/sMaximum horizontal range ------______--_ 5,230 ydsMaximum vertical range --- _------------_ 12,465 ftMaximum effective ceiling with self-de- 7,215 ft with 6 secs

    stroying tracer ammunition. time of flightTheoretical rate of fire (rpm):

    (Model 30--___-_- ___ __----------__ 280)Model 38----------------________---_ 420-480

    Practical rate of fire (rpm):(Model 30 ------_------____ _____ --_ 120)Model 38 (estimated) -- _ _....___I. 180-220

    Weight in action ------______ _ _ - - __--- 906 lbsWeight in draft ------------_--_-_-----__ 1,650 lbsElevation -----------_____-____- __-___- - 12 to+ 900Traverse _-_-------------____._.___ __--- - 360Length of barrel ----------------_ - _--- - _ 65 cals (51.2 inches)Ammlunition-three classes, as follows:

    (i) Self-destroying HE tracer with percussion fuze (weightof projectile, 4.1 ounces; weight of comlllete rollnl,10.6 ounces)

    (ii) AP tracer (weight of projectile, 5.2 ounces; weight ofcomplete round, 11.6 ounces)

    (iii) Practice (HE and AP)Normally the penetration performance with AP is

    45 mmn (1.77 inches) of armor.at 100 yards.


    (2) Sights.-The two alternative sights normallyused with the 2-cm Flak 30 are the Flakvisier 35 andthe Linealvisier 21, both of which are also used with the2-cm Flak. 38. A newer sight, known as the Flakvisier38, has been developed for use with the 2-cm Flak 38.

    It should be noted that all these sights are dependenton some separate continuous and accurate means ofproviding range. For this purpose, each gun detach-ment includes a range-taker who is equipped with aportable 1-meter-base stereoscopic range-finder.

    In addition, a simple telescopic sight may be usedwith either the 2-crn Flak 30 or the 2-cmn Flak 38.

    (a) Flakvisier (AA Sight) 35. 4 -This is a reflecting-mirror sight with a computor mechanism operating onthe course-and-speed principle. If the target is keptin the center of the sight, and the appropriate settingsfor slant range, speed, and course and angle of dive orclinb are set in, then the bore of the gun is in correctalignment to pass the shell through the future positionof the target. The setting for course is by Imeans ofa pointer in the horizontal plane which is kept parallelto the estimated course of the aircraft. The setting forangle of dive or clilmb is by means of a pointer set in thevertical plane.

    (b) Flakvisier (AA Sight) 38.-Information aboutthe Flakvisier 38 is at present very incomplete, but whatis known shows that it represents a departure from thecourse-and-speed prilciple on which the Flakvisier 35functions. This sight can be used both against air

    'See TM-E 9-228 (German), section VII.506995 -43--3

  • 24 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERYtargets, and against moving and fixed land and seatargets.

    The Flakvisier 38 is an electric automatic sight.The layer keeps a cross on his object glass coincidentwith the target, thus obtaining angle of sight and azi-muth. Range, either estimated or called out by therange-taker, is set by the range-setter.

    The sighting arrangement consists of illuminatedcross wires automatically controlled in terms of super-elevation and deflections. The elevating and traversinggears are coupled to elevating and traversing tachome-ter-dynarnos in such a way that the voltages generatedby them vary with the speeds of laying.

    The gun's traversing gear is coupled to a tachometer-dynamo, which produces electric voltage varying di-rectly with the rate of traverse. The terminals areconnected to a moving coil meter which measures thestrength of the electric current. A variable resistancedepending on range setting is introdlced, so that thecurrent is regulated both by the tachometer-dynamlo andby the strength of the range resistance. With shortranges the corresponding resistance is low and thedeflection large; with long ranges, the deflection issmall and the resistance high. The resultant lateraldeflection is transmitted to the layer's vertical crosswire, which moves in the direction opposite to thecourse of the aircraft.

    Vertical deflection is obtained by multiplying the rateof change of the angle of sight by the time of flight ofthe shell. Rate of change is measured by the rate of ele-vation or depression of the gun, whereas titme of flight


    is taken as a measure of the range set. Superelevationin terms of range is added to the vertical deflection togive the appropriate quadrant elevation. The resultantvalue is automatically applied to the layer's horizontalcross wire.

    (c) Line(lviser (Linear Sight) 21 (figs. 5 and 6).-This is a form of direct AA sight, giving course, speed,and range adjustment. It consists of a horizontal barwhich is graduated from 0 to 1,600 meters. Range isset by turning a cylindrical hand nut on the runner of acartwlheel-type foresight, thus increasing the "lead"as the range is increased.

    The ring foresight is rotatable, thus enabling courseof the target to be set. A bar showing speed from 11 to150 meters per second is mounted moveably on theforesight. This speed bar can also be adjusted to theangle of dive or climlb. The baeksight consists of anlaperture set between two layers of nonsplintering glassinclined at 45 dlegrees to the horizontal bar.

    Both the Flak/visier 35 and the Flak 1isier 38 must beremoved before the Lincealvisier 21 can be moionted.

    (d ) Telescopic sight.--A simple telescopic sight(with a magnification of eight) may also be employedfor the engagement of arnlored vehicles and groundtargets.

    (3) 1-meter-base range-finder 6 (fig. 7).- The 1-meter (39.37-inch)-base range-finder is employed bylight AA detachllmnts manning the 2-cmi Flak 30 and

    'See TM-E !)-'228 (German), section VIII.6 See TM'-E 9-228 (Geriman). section IX.

  • 26 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY38 and the 3.7-cm Flak 36. Magnification is sixfold,and the range is from 800 to 26,200 feet. This instru-ment is normally used- strapped to the range-taker's


    13 5

    4 7

    Figure 5.-Sketch of Linealvisier 21.1. Bracket. 9. Range knob.

    Suspension claws. 10. Driving disk.3. Clamping screw. 11. Backsight retaining springs.4. Slit guide. 12. Rule.5. Backsight bracket. 13. Aiming line.6. Backsight. 14. Setting handle.7. Slide. 15. Speed scale.8. Ring foresight.

    shoulders, but there is also provision for a small tripod.The instrument is manufactured by Carl Zeiss of

    Jena. It is of the standard stereoscopic pattern, esti-mation of distance being by means of two reticles, one

  • WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT 27in each eyepiece, which when "fused" stereoscopicallyappear superimposed upon the image in depth. Theinstrument is difficult to handle, and considerable prac-tice is necessary before an operator can obtain satis-factory results. The operator is required to produceaccurate results at slant ranges up to 4,000 meters(4,400 yards).



    /\ i! andle

    Figure 6.-Sighting the target with Linealvisier 21.

    (4) Ptersoun c,.--The gun detachment consists ofseven men as follows:

    Detachmenlt (oinnallllderNo. 1------- LayerNo. 2- -_--- Range-setterNo. 3- ------ Course-setterNo. 4- ------ LoaderiNo. 5-___ ---- Range-takerVehicle dIriver


    Figure 7.-i--meter-base range-finder in use with 3.7-cm (37-mm)AA/AT gun.


    c. 20-mm Four-Barreled AA/AT Gun (Quadruple Mount)7(Fig. 8)

    (1) Description.-The 2-cm Flakvicrling 38 consistsof four 2-cm Flak 38 guns. It may be employed eitheragainst aerial or ground targets. It is normally trans-ported on a special trailer, but may also be mounted onhalf-track vehicles or railway mounts.

    There is also a static version for use on Flak towers,in coast defenses, etc. In the trailer version, the gunis normally fired with its mount on the ground and withthe trailer removed. It can, however, be fired fromthe trailer in an emergency (i. e., on the ilarch). Atraverse of only about 10 degrees at top elevation ispossible in this position. Two foot-levers operate thetrigger mechanism. Each foot-lever actuates the trig-gers of two diametrically opposite guns (i. e., the topleft and the bottom right, and the top right and bottomleft). This arrangement provides uninterruplted, con-tinuous. fire. While two guns are firing, the magazinesof the other two can be changed. When both firinglevers are operated, all four guns fire simultaneously.Furthermore, should there be a stoppage on one ormore guns, the remaining guns can continue to fire.Provision is made for single-shot or continuous fire oneach weapon. A shield may be fitted to the carriage.This weapon fires the same ammunition as does the2-clm Flak 38 described above.

    The following additional characteristics pertain tothe f'our-barreled mount:

    See 'I'TM- 9-228 (German).

  • 30 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERYTheoretical rate of fire -----------___ 1.680-1,920 rpmPractical rate of fire (estimated) ------ 700-800 rpmElevation ___------- __-__.. _----- -10 to +100 Traverse ___-- --- _- _ _ -- -------- _ 360 Rate of traverse (two speed) _---_-_- 71/2 or 221/20 (per turn

    of handwheel)Rate of elevation (two speed) __------ 4 or 12 (per turn of

    handwheel)Loading -- B------------------------_ By flat box-magazines

    containing 20 roundsin two staggered rows

    Weight in action (mobile version) -- _ 2,979 lbsWeight in draft (with accessories) -_- 4,866 lbsWeight of trailer 52 ____________--__ 1.848 lbsWeight in action (static version) __---- 1.25 tons

    (2) Sights.-The equi)pmnent is p)rovided with theFlakvisier 40 (or, where not available, Linealvisier 21-see b (2) (c), above), and a telescopic sight for theengagement of ground targets (see b (2) (d), above).The Flakvisier 40 operates on the same }principle as theFlakvisier 38, described in b (2) (b), above. Appar-ently, Flakvisier 35 may also be used on the 2-cm.Flakvierling 38.

    d. 37-mm AA/AT Gun (figs. 7 and 9)(1) Description.-The 3.7-cm (1.45-inch) Flak 36 is

    the smallest caliber of medium Flak artillery. Thisgun is mounted on a two-wheeled trailer, detached whenthe gun is in the firing position, but the gun can be firedfrom the trailer in an emergency. This method can beadopted both in an AT and an AA role on the march;movement in azimuth is, however, very limited underthese conditions, and the crew may have to move thegun and trailer bodily to enable the target to be engaged.

  • zia:::- :::;:-I:::;: i;i .: E--"I:

    :--i: i`-i"'-L3r:g-.; - : -

    ; : ii::, _, ::: : ... :': : _ : :: -; : ':isifi::-- :i:::::

    -ii-.ii-. :Mi i: : _- --- -":::::: ::-- ::':-::::::i-

    ::: ::_ : :: :: - : :: i ::::--::: : i-- : : :::i' -:: i:---:

    i;:i:-;:i -:::-:-,n- a:-:irl:;-::--:: ::: :' :la-

    --: --::-i i--i:-I -i--:: -: :::::-';:--::

    -: .-.. :: : --::--:I-'-:: :::r

    ::-:::-i--::::: ;:::-,i

    ...:: :::- - --: .. --_,-i: -:--_;::-::: ::::: -'-- ---: :-_

    :: _.:._::i::: : :::--- i-'ii-- ali -: :: ::

    ii_-i-i-_r:-i--ii:!:ii-i:;- : ::: ;:--:- -:-_ . :: . _

    : : -: -::: -:-:: :

    : - :

    Figure 8.-1-cm (IO-mm) Nakvierling 38 on Fixed support, showing

    ammunition Feed.

  • Figure 9.-Demonstration class inspecting 3.7-cm (37-mm) AA/ATgun. (The German instructor is pointing to the feed mechanism.)


    When on tile trailer, the gun is towed behind motortransportation in which the personnel and stores arealso carried. This gun also is found on self-p)ropelledhalf-track vehicles and on railway nounits. Other char-acteristices of this gun are as follows:M uzzle velocity ----------------------- 2,690 f/sMaximum horizontal range ---------__ - 8, 744 ydsMaximlum vertical ran(ige __ 15,60() ftTheoretical rate of fire __--------- -__-- -. 150 rpmPractical rate of fire ---------------__ _-_ 60 rpmMaximum effective ceiling with self-de- 13,775 ft with 14 secs

    stroyilg tracer amlllunition. (A new time of flightshell has been intro(luced, which is self-destroying at 9,185-11.48() ft after 7-10secs.)

    Autonmatic, recoil-operated; the firingmlleclllanisml can be set for single-shot orcontin tous fire as re(ulired(. I'lhe amniuni-nitioin is load(lel in clips hlolling Ig rounds.

    Weight in Iaction ---_-_-- ____------ 3.400 lbs (approx.)Elevation _______-- _---- ----------- - 100 4-85 Traverse ........ . ........._ __.._.._ :f. 0 Length of barrel-__ .------------------__ 50 cals (6 ft)Amminunition-two classes, as follows:

    '(i) Self-destroying HE tracer with p)ercussion fuze (weightof projectile. I lb. 6 oz)

    (ii) Al' tracer (weight of projectile, 1 lb 81/, oz)(2) KS'ights.-The Fla;kvisicr 33 is no rmnally used for

    AA lire with this weapon. This sight is believed to besimilar in principle to the Flakvisier 35 used with the2-cm Flak 30, described above. Observation by traceris used with this sight for close targets where the angu-lar velocity is high; in such cases, only the course is setinto the sight.


    (3) Personnel.-The gun detachment consists of 12men as follows:

    Detachment CommanderNo. 1____-___ LayerNo. 2-------- Range-setterNo. 3 ------- Course-setterNo. 4 -----__ LoaderNo. 5 .----- Range-takerNo. 67____-- Ammunition numbersNo. 7 ------Vehicle driverVehicle driver's reliefSpotters (2)

    e. 40-mm AA GunAlthough used by the Germans, the 4-cm (1.57-inch)

    Flak 36 is not encountered very often in German AAunits. The few guns known to be in the hands of theGermans are believed to have been taken for the mostpart from the Polish Army after the Polish Campaign.The 4-cm Flak 36 is a Bofors gun, having characteris-tics similar to the weapon used by the British exceptfor some few variations in performance characteristics.A few characteristics of this gtnl are as follows:Muzzle velocitvy .............................. 2',950 f/sMaximum horizontal range .---------------- 12,300 ydsMaximum vertical range ---------------- --- 3,- 23.200 ftEffective ceiling ----------------------------- 16,200 ftTheoretical rate of fire_ -. - -- _-----------_ 120 rplnPractical rate of fire -.------------------- 80 rpmW eight of projectile -------_ . 9-----_------ --- 2.2 lbsWeight in action __--_________---------------- 4,234 lbsElevation _------------ ----- --- ----- -5 to +90 Traverse _-_------------- - - - - - 3600Length of barrel ----- _ _-_----- -------- 60 cals


    f. 47-mm AA GunThe 4.7-cm Flak 37 has in the past been used to some

    extent by the Germans as a medium AA/AT gun, butthere are indications that the Germans are not entirelysatisfied with its performance, and that no attempt willbe made to produce this gpm in any large quantity. Thisweapon is a Czech model, having originally been pro-duced at the Skoda works and adopted for use by theCzechoslovakian Army. The gun is tractor-drawn, butit is also found on some self-propelled mounts. A fewof the characteristics are as follows:Muzzle velocity _._----- __-_----- 2,620 f/sMaximumn horizontal range _-------_- 10,350 ydsMaximum vertical range____-_____________ 22,300 ftMaximumn effective ceilingllr -_---------_ 17,000 ftTheoretical rate of fire ------------ __-_---- 25 rpmPractical rate of fire --------------------_ 15 rl)mW eight in action -----------------------_ 3,400 lbs (a)pprox.)Elevation .---------- -. _ _ --- 10 to + 85Travenrse __------------------------------- 3(;0Weight of lprojectile --------------------- 3.3 lbsg. 50-mm AA/AT Gun

    The 5-crn Flak 41 (1.97-inch) has only recently beenbrought into service. Its introduction inl(licates a con-sidered need for a medium gun with a higher ceilingand greater destructive power than the standard me-dium 3.7-cm. No detailed or accurate information isavailable about its performance, but it is clainled bythe Germans to fire both HE and AP ammunition andto be provided with a new Flak sight 41, whicll, accord-ing to a sketchy German report, is operated by one manand is a completely automatic clockwork-sight. Also


    according to the report, range is intro(luced and angula vveldcities are calculated in such a way that sulpereleva-tio1 antl vertical and lateral deflections are auto-matically applied.

    This reported new gun should not be confused withthe 5-eml Pak' 41, which is purely al AT weapon.

    h. 75-mm AA GunThe 7.5-cm Flak L/60 is a 1.938 model, and is only

    slightly modified from the 7.5-(cm Flak Lh/59, which is a1934 mIodel. 'l'he 7.5-el Flak L,'i60 is carried on a trail-er mount and is ordinarily tlactor-drawn. Somle ver-sions of this gun may also be found on self-propelledmounts, anrd in fixed AA installations. The weapon isnot used to any great extent, however, since the 88-linlgun has become the standard German gun of this class,just as the U. S. 90-mmn AA gun is superseding the U. S.3-inch AA gun. Some of the characteristics of the 7.5-cm Flak L/60 are as follows:M uzzle velocity ---------------- ----------- - - 2.780 f/sMaximum holrizontal range ____............----- 15,5()() ydsMaximumlw vertical rangte _______-........... -37.0(o() ftMaxinmuim effective ceiling --------- _-_--- -__. -30,()()0 ftTheoretical rate of fire ----------- _-------- - 25_ r pPractical rate of fire --- --- --- --- --- ---__ 15 rpmWeighlt in action _______________________________ 2.9 tolnsElevation -.-.------------------------------------ 3 to +85oTraverse ___________________________- ______----_ 3(;-0Length of barrel --------- --------___-- --- --- -- (i) calsW eight of pro(jectile ----- _ ---- ----- ----- __ _- - 14.3 Ibs

    Pakt is an abbreviation of "Panlzerablwelrl,:anonle," whicll mea s ";anti-tank gun."


    i. 88-mm Dual-Purpose Gun (figs. 10 and 16)(1) Developcnenxt.-The German 8.8-cml gun was in-

    trodueced in 1.934 as the standard mobile AA gun. Itwas then known as the 8.8-cm Flak 18. In 1936, duringthe S:panish War, it proved a very effective weaponagainst tanks, which were at that time relatively lightlyarmlored. In order to develop still further this dulal-pl)r)ose emlployment, the Germans produced arlmor-piereing artmunition for the weapon, a telescopic sightsuitable for the engagement of ground targets, and amore mobile carriage; an HE shell with a percussionfllse was also produced so that the weapon could, whennecessary, be enployed in a field-artillery role.

    The iml)roved equipment was ready in time for theBattle of France, when it proved itself capable of deal-ill, with the heavier French tanks, ag'ainst which thethen standard ATl glul, the 3.7-cml (1.45-in) Pak, wasrelatively ineffec(tive. The next stel) was to providethe gun with a new c'arriage, from which the gnun couldengage tanks without being taken off its wheels, and tofit a shield. Still more recently, a self-propelled mounthas been reportedl; and while there is no precise in-formation as to its design, it appears that from thisilounlt the gun c(an readily take on groundll, but not air,targets.

    (2) Dcscriptio, .- (a) Gencral.-For all practicalpurposes, the operating characteristics of the 18, 36, and38 models of this weapon are the samne. The maincharacteristics of the 8.8-cm Flak 18 are as foliows:


    Muzzle velocity_ -________ _ .. .. 2,755 f/sMaximum horizontal range -- ____-. 16,600 vdsMaximum vertical range_- ------- 35,700 ftMaximum effective ceiling .--------.. 34,770 ftTheoretical rate of fire ----- _____ -- _ 25 rpmPractical rate of fire __ __......... 12 to 15 rpmWeight in action _--_-_-----------_ 4.9 tonsWVeight in draft _------ ---_ _-.-----. 7.1 tonsElevation_ .---------__.. -------- -3 to +850Traverse -______-- ----------------- 3600 (limited to two com-

    plete revolutions of thehandwheels, either sideof zero, to avoid ex-cessive twisting of thedata transmission ca-ble)

    Length of barrel -_-___--__ --------. 56 cals

    (b) Gvtn data (8.8-cm Flak 18).-The gun consists ofa jacket, a sleeve, a removable tube in three sections,and a breech ring. The three-section tube is held inplace by the breech ring in the rear and by a lockingcollar in the front, both of which are secured to thesleeve. The sleeve is secured to the jacket by a lockingring at the breech end. One of the joints in the three-section liner is in the chamber of the gun and is there-fore sealed by the shell case, but the other occurs atabout one-third of the distance to the muzzle.

    The breech mechanism is of the horizontal sliding-wedge type, semiautomatic and self-cocking. As thegun recoils, the mechanism opens, ejects the empty case,and at the same time, compresses the striker andbreechblock operating springs. Loading is by auto-matic rammer used in conjunction with a loading tray.


    ~iZ~g11ii!1111iEd ; 7;00 00 o00 ;0000 w0 0 \

    _ ii.i aaA gSf0At::0: tS!i ;; lt g: : i0 X0: F i S: :+ . t f at i .Dff 2 i.SEA; :Skt ,i _ ; i~~rSiiiii~i t fSE0St;SS00 atSi E0CX;0iS a ;0tiiSAVuiXub ii!0u: f *i:) i iliC ~!iE~d ::US i 4t:0 E ; : : ;!i!!!i if . S t 0 :S ; : X : E :i :iii! t \ :. . gi-S L S C 0 i! 0)e ::~. SS0.: : EaE t :?: tA f: :t i S d::0 0-i;,g.f M: .0i~~~~g:SfALU5000::j: St :. ff :H Sai.; C:; 00 0 S:S; ffS: :: :V~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~tid t~~~f~d 0: A:70 i: ::: D :7: 0 C; SS X; f ti;Xi:: .0325 f: fiS;WAS~~~~~~~~~:1i~:1i!!iit00.0i00 i!!!;iii

    Fiur 1 0.--8.8-cm ( 8 8 -mm dual-up s gun 52DE?4t k : inf) y0 g: td0000:SCSA at.ion.g 0. 0

    0 so; s9 95o-_ . ~0 --40 S AtSE~ aL :f|C t0 5 0 S ? W t : f a 0 f:A : i:r.t


    Firing is by percussion. The withdrawal of the loadingtray will operate the firing mechanism unless set to"Hand." The breechblock may be opened and closedby hand if desired. The mechanism must be hand-operated for loading the first round. Safety arrange-ments are incorporated in the mechanism to preventfiring until the breech is in the closed position.

    (c) Mount data.-The mount has a platform whichrests squarely on the ground when the gun is in the fir-ing position. The platform has four legs, with jacksat the outer ends of each for approximate leveling. Inithe traveling position, the two side legs fold upward.T'he pedestal is secured to the platform and supportsthe body through a gimbal ring and body pivot housing.The body, which contains the azimuth and elevationgears, supports the cradle on its trunnions and rotatesin the housing for azimuth traverse. Accurate cross-leveling is accomplished by rocking the body pivot hous-ing in the gimbal ring by means of crloss-levelinghandwlheels on the platform. A 5-degree movemnent ispossible by this means.

    The gun slides on the cradle, to which it is connectedthrough the recoil mechanisln. The recoil systenm in-corporates a hydraulic buffer below the barrel, and ahydro-pneumlatic reculperator above. Both cylindersare secured to the cradle, and the pistons are connectedto the breech ring. The buffer contains 18.8 pints ofbuffer fluid. The recuperator contains about 41/ gal-lons of fluid and an approximately equal volume of airat 39 atmospheres. Length of recoil is variable, beingabout 1,050 mml at 0 degrees quadrant elevation, and


    700 mm at 85 degrees quadrant elevation. The auto-mratic ramntmer operates with the return cylinder, load-ing-tray, and actuating mechanisnm. The internal con-struction of the return cylinder resembles that of therecuperator on a smlaller scale.

    A hand-operated fuze-setter with two openings isfitted to the left side of the body.

    To put the gun in traveling position, the si(le legs arefolded upward and secured. A limber and carriage areattached to the platform, whichl is raised by winchesand secured. Some miodifications of this gun are capa-ble of being fired from the traveling position at groundtargets, and there is also a illodel on a self-propelledmount.

    (3) Ammunitio .---The three types of anmllluni itionused with this weapon are as follows:

    Weight of complete Length of corn- Weight of projectile Fzeroond [plete rooFnd

    HPF shell__ 31 lbs II li oz 36.39 inl 20 lbs 1 oz .... 1 iine-clockwork.HE shell ..-- 32 Ihs__ 3fi.69 in - 20 lbs 5 oz- . Nose percussion.AP tracer___ 33 hs ... .34.21 in-_. 21 lbs /2 oz i Base.

    Penetration of the AP projeectile against homrogene-ous alrlnior plate is approxilmately as follows:

    7'hiekness of plateRagpe i.1 yards NormIal 30

    1,)000 ----------------- ----------------- 4.7 ill 4.1 inI,50() ................................. 4.2 in 3.7 in2,()000) ......................... 3.7 in 3.1 in

    (4) Fire control.-Tlie guln may be laidl on the targetby three methods:

    (a) Indirect laying, by Inatching the pointers of the


    data receivers, which are controlled by the director(Kom.imandogerSit No. 36, described in par. 8 b (1),below).

    (b) Direct laying, by means of the Flak ZF 20-Etelescopic sight. Vertical and lateral deflections areapplied to the telescope, and the man at the azimuthhandwheel puts the cross hairs on the target. The gunis elevated by the man on the elevation handwheel, whofollows an indicating arm which moves with the sight.

    (c) The dial sight mlay be used for laying the gunin azimuth, while the quadrant elevation is set in bythe elevation main as ordered.

    (5) Mobility.-This gun is normally towed by twotypes of half-track vehicles. These vehicles, which arerespectively of 140 and 185 horsepower and weigh 111/2and 141/2 tons loaded, carry the gun crew, as well as asupply of ammunition in lockers at the rear of thevehicle. The exact amount of amrnmnition carried isnot known, but seems to be at least about 35 rounds.

    (6) Pe'rsolncl.-(a) For action aa ainst aircraft.-The gun detachmlent consists of a detachniment com-mander and( nine men, with duties for antiaircraftaction as follows:

    Detachment CondlnlerNo. 1_------ Elevtatioll-setterNo. 2-------- Azinuth-setferNo. 3------- Loading andl firning numnberNo. 45

    No. 6-------- Fuze-setterNo. 7No. 8 ------- Ammunition numbersNo. 9


    (b) For action against ground targets.-For the en-gagement of ground targets, the duties of this gundetachment are as follows:

    Detachment CommalnderNo. 1------- . Elevation-setterNo. 2---- _ _Azimluth-setterNo. 3- ------ Loading and firing numberNo. 4

    No. 6- Ammunition numbersNo. 7No. 8------- Range-setterNo. 9- ------ Lateral-deflection setter

    j. 105-mm AA Gun(1) DeIscription.-' The .10.5-cm Flak 38 (4.14-inch)

    is being encountered in increasing nlubers. Althoughthe 8.8-cmr gun, because of its success and iln particularits value as a dual-purpose weapon, is likely to remllainthe main armament of heavy Flak, it is known that theI()10.5-cm gun ranks high on German priorities for warproduction. The possibility that this larger weaponmay be developed as an AA/AT gun must, thereforee,be reckoned with. It is noteworthy that a new tractor-(rawn mlobile version was plroduc(ed some timlle ago, al-though it is reported that the mount proved unsatis-factory.

    Sonie of the main characteristics of this weapon areas follows:M uzzle velocity --- -------------- ------------- 2.890 f/sMaximulm horizontal range.. 19.10() ydsMaximum vertical range --____------------------ 41.'300 ftMaximum effective ceiling -----------......... 37,()00 ft

  • 44 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERYTheoretical rate of fire ------------------------ 15 IrpmPractical rate of fire ........................... 8 to 1(0 rpiWeight in action -----------____ _m_ __------. 11.56 tonsElevationll ----------- -- 3 to + 87Traverse-__--_____-- ___________---------_----_ 3600Length of barrel ---------------------____-_--- 60 calsAmmunllitionl---three classes, as follows:

    (i) II E; with tille fuze (weighlt of projectile. 32 lbs 11 oz)(ii) lie withl percussion flize (weight of projectilh, not

    (iii) AP withl base fuze (weighlt of projectile, nlot known)An alitomtiatic fuze-setter is used with the gun, buit it

    is not known whether it operates on the sanme principlesas does the fuze-setter fitted on the 8.8-cmn weapon.Details of the loading and firing mechanisll are notknlown, but they are probably substantially the same asfor the 8.8-(clm ginl.

    (2) Fire co(ltrol.--The Kotmmualdogeriit No. 40 isellployed with this gun for firing at aircraft. A de-scription of the Kolntnandogeriat No. 36, which is use(lwith the 8.8-cm gun, is given in a later portion of thisstudy (see par. 8b (1), below). Ltt is believed that tleNo. 40 operates on the same principle as the No. 36;.Ini addition, the Komnm ian (loll ilf s qerlil No. 35 (auxilial:rypredictor) can also be used with this gim. A descrip-tion of the latter inistrument appears elsewhere in thisstudy.

    (3) Personnel.-Except for additional men thatmight be required to handle the heavier anmmunitio-l,the personnel comprising the gun detachment is sub-stantially the same as for the 8.8-cr weapon.


    k. 127-mm AA GunThe 12.7-cm Flak 38 (5-inch) is a naval AA weapon.

    Althouglh this gun is known to be used by the Germans,mainly in a static AA role in Germany, little reliabledata is available concerning its characteristics and op-eration. Its known main characteristics are as follows:Muzzle velocityv ......................... 2,500 f/sMaximurimi horizontal rntlge --__________-- - 19.600 ydsMaximum vertical ranl ge 42,600 ftAIaximum effective ceiling . ...........----- 35.000 to 40,000 ftTheoretical rate of fire ----------- 12 r)ilPractical rate of fire ----------------------- 8 rpmElevation ------------------------ _-_--- - 00 to 900Tra'verse ---------------------------------- 3600Weighllt of p)rojectile h _ ............. 5B lbsLength of barrel _. .......................- 50 cals

    I. 150-mm AA GunThe 15-crm Flak 39 (5.91-incel) is used by the Ger-

    miians in a (llal-purpose role, foi AA anid coast dlefense.For the most part it is found on fixed mounts in staticroles, iianlneld to a large extent by Navy p)ersonllel. Lit-tle accurate information is available on this gun, butthe following limited data will serve to give some in1di-cation of its capabilities:"AMllzzle velocity --- --- --- --- --- ---________ 3,450 f/sMaximuim horizontal rarige__ 34,000 y(lsMaximnum vertical range -------------- - (66(),000 ftMaximilIllr effective ceiling -------------- 40,0()0 to 45,,000 ft

    Illeoretical rate of fire ------------------ - 1.2 rlpmP1ractical rate of fire -------------------- - 6 0 to 8 rpinWeight of projectile----------------------- 88.6 lbs

    9The datall is frornl (er'llall soll'(ces andl (lnlllcnt be a(I(qll(ately verifled.


    8. FIRE CONTROLa. Solution of the AA Fire-Control Problem

    There is no indication that a director of any typeis ordinarily used with the light and medium Flak guns,the Germans apparently having decided that the devel-opment of the Flak sights already described is moreprofitable and practicable than the development ofdirectors. For use with heavy guns, the Germandevelopment of fire-control apparatus is strikinglysimilar to our own. They have an older, angular-speeddirector which is used for auxiliary purposes, but thelatest and most cormmonly used instrument operates onthe linear-speed method, using ipresent azimuth, presentangular height, and present slant range as basicelements.

    b. Equipment(1) Konmlnaldogerat (stereoscopic fire director)

    (figs. 11 and 12) .-- (a) Description.-This fire-controlinstrument combines into one instrument a 4-meter-base Zeiss stereoscopic height- and ranlge-finder, and adirector. Two types are known: the No. 36, employedwith the 8.8-cm Flak gun, and the No. 40, employedwith the 1-0.5-cim Flak gun. The principles andmethod of operation of the No. 40 are not known; butthey are probably similar to those of the No. 36, detailsof which follow.

    (b) Method of operation.-The stages in the produc-tion of the firing data in the No. 36 are as follows:

    (1) The height- and range-finder furnishes present


    azimuth, angle of sight, and slant range to the target,all of which may be termed initial data.

    (2) The rate of change, obtained by continuouslyfeeding this data into the predictor, provides the hor-izontal ground speed and the course angle of the tar-get, which may be termed intermediate data.

    Figure 11 .-Kommandogerct in traveling position.(Note that the range-finder is carried separately.)

    (3) The combination of initial and intermediatedata provides the vertical alnd lateral deflectionl andrange correction to determine the futlure position.From this combination, the gun data is obtained bymechanical computation within the predictor.

    (c) Transmission of data to gum.s.--The gun datathus obtained (in terms of firing azirnuthl-, quadrantelevation, and fuze) are normally transmlitted electri-cally to the guns, in the following nmanner: each ol' thethree receiver dials at the gun (i. e., for firing azimuth,quadrant elevation, and fuze) is provided with tlhree


    mechanical pointers pivoted at tile center of the dial.There are three concentric circles on the dial, each with10 holes numbered from 0 to 9, each hole being fittedwith an electric bulb. The outer circle replresentsunits; the clenter, tenls; and the inner, hundreds. The

    Figure 12.-Kommandoger;t ready for use.

    appropriate bulbs light up in accordanlce with the data,transmitted from the Kommao llogerit. The actualvalue of the reading is different for each dial, the unit(i. e., on the outer circle) in each instance having thefollowing values:Azimuth receiver - ................ (0.360Elevation receiver ................ 0.100Fuze receiver -------------------- 0.5 (of the Germa-ln systemi

    of fuze range) '"

    ' The Gernln fuze scv}le rewads from ( to :50, thle nrlllerals beilng referlncenumbers which indicate definite times of flight.


    These figures provide a measure of the limits of ac-curaer obtainemd in transmission. The two gun-layersalnd thle f'lze-setter bring their nmeehclanieal data point-ers into coincidence (covering the illuminated bulbswith the transpalrent celluloid ends o:l tihe pointers) byrnair ally actuatinfg azimuth and elevation hanldwlheelson the gunls, and the fuze-setting hanldwheel on themachine fuze-setter.

    (2) Ko mm. dohilfsge i t (m xiliar 1 1 fire dir (c-tor).-Thlis instrument is used f'or aulxiliary plurl)oses.and( operates on the prinllil)le of ealculation of tlhe ratesof clhangle of angular velocity. A sep)arate 4-meter-basestereosco)ic hbeight- an(d range-finder l)rovides the pres-ent slant rangoe to the target, and this data is i)assedlorally to the direetor. By followilng the target coitiin-uoiislyv for azimiutli a(l elevation, and by settingl iinrange continuously, the rates of chlange of azimruth, ele-vation, and slant range are obtained. These, nmllti-J)lied by time of flight, give the lateral anrl vertical d(e-flections and a correction for ranige. These corr ectiolls,applied to the plresent data, provide future data wliichlare corrected for abnl)lormal ballistic conditions, (leadtime, and drift, an( wlich ari'e then p)assed to the guinsas gun azitiiith, (lquadrant elevation, and fuze. DI)ata intfhis case are transmlitte(l to the gnuns by teletl)hol(e:, n(oclectric(al transmission being provided.

    (:') Telescopic s'iqht fo r 88'-.mm 4 l.--r'he 8.8-emrlgun is fitted with a telescopic sight primarily for tlheemirge;lluent of grounld targets; the latest type is thetele(solfie sight 20-E (ZF 20-E). I[t weighs about 10poiuids andl is a monocular type with a magnification


    of four and a field view of 17.5 degrees. The reticle ismade with two cross lines interrupted at the center toform a laying mark, an arrangement which is usual inGerman instruments. There is a range drum gradu-ated in hundreds from 0 to 9,400 mneters, and a siuper-elevation drum with graduations of 1/16 of a degree,from 0 to 12 . There are also lateral- and vertical-deflection drumis.

    For AT use, the lateral- and vertical-deflection drumsare set to zero. Range is set on the range drum,thereby automatically applying the necessary super-elevation. Corrections from observation of fire areapplied to deflection drumrs as required.

    An older type of instrument, the 2F 20, may be fitted.This has the same particulars, but no range drum;superelevation must be found from a range table andapplied.

    (4) Radio-location equipment.-It is known thatGerman radio-location equipment for fire-control datais being produced on a high priority, and there is nodoubt that this will constitute a most important line offuture development. This activity is taking placeparallel to the developmlent of radio-detection equip-merit fot warning against hostile aircraft. Aerial ob-servers flyinlg over gin positions in Germrtany and theguin-defended portions of occupied European countrieshave reported seeing instruments, identified as (Ger-man radio-location instruments, in close proximity togun positions. This would indicate that these radio-location instrumrents are being used with gun batteries,probably as a means of furnishing early basic data to


    the directors. Another possible use of these instru-ments is to furnish early information for calculationof data for barrage and deterrent fire.

    9. SEARCHLIGHTSa. Heavy Searchlights

    (1) Equipment.- (a) General.-The equipment usedwith a heavy searchlight consists of four main units:a sound locator, the searchlight, an optical director,and the generator. Beyond the introduction of remotecontrol, little is known of recent developments in Ger-man searchlight equipment. Some searchlights of200-cm, or larger, diameter have been developed, andthe sound locator has possibly been improved by theintroduction of some form of electrical amplification.The standard heavy searchlight, however, is the 150-cm(60-inch) size. Information from radio-locationequipment is almost certainly passed to the search-lights, but the extent and method of its application areunknown.

    (b) The ring-trumpet sound locator derives itsname from the construction of the four trumpets orhorns as a single unit of ring shape. Ordinary stetho-scopic listening by two listeners, one for azimuth andone for elevation, is employed. The base length is 135cm (53.1 inches), giving a theoretical accuracy of aboutone-half degree. In average weather conditions, therange is about 6,600 yards. The trumpets can bemoved through 360 in azimuth and from 0 to 1080 inelevation. The "lag calculator" is in the base of thesound locator. Estimated target and sound speeds (the


    latter based on weather conditions) are set into the lagcalculator, which continuously reconstructs the triangleformed by the line of sound reception, the line of sight(present position), and the target course. The azi-muth and elevation of the line of sight are shown elec-trically both at the sound locator and at the searchlight.The sound locator and the searchlight are connected bya cable.

    (c) The 150-cm (60-inch) searchlight (fig. 13) hasa glass parabolic reflector of 150-cm diameter. Thefocal length is 650 mm. The high-current-density arelamp is self-regulating and is fitted in an inverted posi-tion in the projector barrel. The light is of 990 millioncandle power and has a range in favorable weather of8,800 yards at a height of 13,000 to 16,500 feet. Thecurrent consunlption is 200 amperes at 77 volts. Theprojector can be moved in azimuth through 360 , andin elevation from -12 through the vertical to -- 12on the other side. The movement of the projector inazimuth is by means of a control arm, which is nor-nlally manipulated by hand; its movement in elevationis by means of either of two handwheels, one on thecontrol arm and one on the opposite side of the pro-jector. Electrical receivers for azimuth and elevationshow the azimuth and elevation of the line of sightcalculated by the sound locator. The beamn is exposedand covered by a shutter of Venetian-blind type. Moterecent models are believed to be equipped with azimuthand elevation driving-nmotors which can be operated byautomatic remote control from the sound locator orfrom the optical director; the exposing and covering of


    the beam on these models is controlled from the opticaldirector. It is understood that the driving motors havethree or four speeds, 1 degree and/or 1.5, 4, and 16degrees per second.

    Figure 13.-1 50-cm (60-inch) standard searchlight.(The elevation receiver is on the side of the drum near the extended hand control,

    and the azimuth receiver is in the rear.)

    (d) The optical director consists of a pair of nightglasses of ample magnification mounted on a tripod.The director is fitted with an overhead, open sight andwith scales showing the azimuth and elevation to whichthe night glasses are pointing. When employed with


    remote-control equipment, it is believed that the opticaldirector is located 30 to 45 yards from the searchlight,thus becoming in effect a control station.

    (e) The searchlight generator is driven by an 8-cylinder internal-combustion engine which develops 51horsepower at 1,500 revolutions per minute. The 24-kilowatt generator gives a direct current of 200 amperesat 110 volts at 1,500 revolutions per minute. The cableto the searchlight projector is 220 yards long.

    (2) Mobility.-The sound locator, searchlight, andgenerator are each mounted on a detachable four-wheeled trailer of standard pattern, towed by a truck.Each section or unit therefore requires three trucks fortransportation purposes.

    (3) Perso'nel.--The individual searchlight sectionis composed of 14 individuals with duties as follows:

    Section CommanderNo. 1-_____ Searchlight layer for elevationNo. 2 ---- _ Searchlight controller and layer for azimuthNo. 3------ Lamp attendantNo. 4----- Optical director spotterNo. 5 ----- Generator attendantNo. 6 ----- Engine attendantNo. 7------ Lag-calculator operatorNo. 8------ Azilnuth listenerNo. 9 ----- Elevation listenerNo. 10 ----- Sound locator spotter3 truck drivers

    (4) Comimunications.-Field telephones are the nor-mal means of communication, each battery having threetelephone-erection parties, with sufficient equipment toconnect the searchlight sections to platoon headquarters,which, in turn, are connected to battery headquarters.


    Communications with battalion headquarters are alsonormally by telephone. Each battery has one smalltruck equipped with voice radio for communication withthe battalion, and two details with pack voice-radio foruse within the battery as required.

    b. Light Searchlights(1) Equipment.--(a) General.-The equipment con-

    sists of a 60-cm (23.50-inch) searchlight and agenerator. This highly mobile and easily handledequipment, designed for use without a sound locatoragainst low-flying targets, appears to have given satis-faction in the limited role for which it was intended.There are no indications that any changes in the designare contemplated.

    (b) The 60-cm (23.58-inch) searchlight has a glassparabolic reflector of 60-cm diameter. The focal lengthis 250 mm. The high-current-density arc lamp is self-regulating and is fitted in an inverted position in theprojector barrel. The light is of 135 million candlepower and has a range (in focus) in favorable weatherof 5,700 yards at a height of 5,000 feet; with dispersedbeam the range is 3,500 yards. The current consump-tion is 90 amperes at 60 volts. The projector is movedin azimuth and elevation by halndwheels operated bythe searchlight controller, who is seated behind the pro-jector barrel. The beam is exposed and covered by ashutter of Venetian-blind type.

    (c) An 8-kilowatt searchlight generator gives the re-quired current at 85 volts. It is connected to thesearchlight by a cable 110 yards long.

    5069950 -43---- 5

  • 56 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY(2) Mobility.-The projector is mounted on a de-

    tachable two-wheeled trailer, towed by a truck. Thesame truck carries the generator, which can either beoperated in the body of the truck or be unloaded on theground.

    (3) Personnel.-The individual searchlight section iscomposed of five individuals with duties as follows:

    Section CommanderNo. 1- _-------------__ Searchlight controllerNo. 2- -----------_--- Lamp attendantNo. 3- --------- _-----_ Generator attendantTruck driver

    No. 1 lays the searchlight as ordered, and puts thelight into action with a dispersed beam. The sectioncommander gives directional orders and orders a search,if required. The search is carried out in S-shape light-tracks across the target course. If No. 1 gets on target,No. 2 puts the beam in focus. No. 1 shuts off the beamon the section commander's orders.

    (4) Commnunications.-Since light searchlights nor-mally operate directly with light-gun platoons, the light-searchlight section from the communication point ofview is normally serviced by the light Flak battery orplatoon with which the light-searchlight section isoperating.

    10. BARRAGE BALLOONSa. General

    Although no extensive use of barrage balloons wascontemplated by the Germans before the beginning ofWorld War II, subsequent developments proved that


    barrage balloons have a definite psychological value aswell as a practical value, and experiments conductedprior to the outbreak of the war were very soon put intopractical use over strategic manufacturing centers inwestern Germany.

    As in the U. S. Army and in the British Isles, themain purpose of the German barrage balloon is to holda steel cable suspended vertically in the air. Thus, be-low the operating height of the balloon, this cable ob-stacle presents both a physical and mental hazard toenemy pilots attempting to enter that space. It is ofcourse axiomatic that the type of balloon used for thispurpose will be strong enough to suspend the cable, andthat the balloon is designed in accordance with soundaeronautical principles (i. e., in terms of streamlining,capacity to resist wind stress, etc.). The extent of en-gineering developments of the Germllan barrage balloonsince the beginning of World War II is not definitelyknown, but it is believed that any changes effected con-sist only of minor modifications of the types in existenceat the beginning of the war.b. Description (fig. 14)

    At the beginning of World War II, there were twogeneral types of barrage balloons in existence in Ger-manyv. Both types were egg-shaped and had four finsat the tail end: a top fin, two side fins, and a bottom fin.The top fin and two side fins were inflated with air.The bottom fin was called the steering sack and had anopening at both ends. When the balloon was up, airentered the bottom opening of the fin and made its exitthrough the top opening. The fins (and especially the

  • 58 GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERYbottom fin) served to keep the balloon in proper positionwith respect to the wind and air currents. When in-flated, the shape of the balloon could be likened to a shortfat cigar, with a tail like a Japanese goldfish. Rubbercords were fastened tightly around the outside of theinflated balloon to assist in keeping its shape andstrength.

    Figure 14.-German barrage balloon.Although both types of balloons were inflated with

    hydrogen gas, they differed in that one type was in-flated exclusively with hydrogen gas while the secondwas inflated with both hydrogen gas and air, each beingin separate chambers. At least the first type, and prob-ably both types, were divided into six gas chambers.T'l'he second type had its air compartment behind thehydrogen gas compartment, the air being forced out


    through air valves as the gas expanded at higher alti-tudes. As both types were still more or less in the ex-perimental stage, they varied in size, the largest beingapproximately 60 feet long and 25 feet in diameter, witha