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Chapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1:The Early YearsSection 2:The War ContinuesSection 3:The War Moves West and SouthSection 4:The War is WonVisual Summary
Chapter Intro The Early Years Essential Question What challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
Chapter IntroThe War Continues Essential Question How did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
Chapter IntroThe War Moves West and South Essential Question How did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War?
Chapter IntroThe War is Won Essential Question How did the battle of Yorktown lead to American independence?
Section 1-Essential QuestionWhat challenges did the American revolutionaries face at the start of the war?
Section 1-Key TermsContent VocabularymercenaryrecruitAcademic VocabularytransferpreviousReading Guide
Section 1-Key TermsKey People and EventsHessianMolly PitcherGeneral William HoweNathan HaleReading Guide (cont.)Lemuel HayesPeter SalemBenedict ArnoldGeneral Horatio Gates
Section 1The Opposing SidesThe British and American forces each had advantages and disadvantages during the war for American independence.
Section 1British advantages in the war included:The strongest navy in the worldAn experienced and well-trained armyGreat wealthA much larger populationThe Opposing Sides (cont.)
Section 1American disadvantages in the war included:The absence of a regular army and strong navyA short supply of weapons and ammunitionSome colonists, such as the Loyalists, did not support the war for independence.The Opposing Sides (cont.)
Section 1American advantages in the war included:The ability to fight on their own groundDetermination to gain freedom from BritainThe British relied on Hessian mercenaries to fight for them.George Washington as a leaderThe Opposing Sides (cont.)
Section 1Because Colonists were unwilling to transfer power to their own Continental Congress, Congress experienced difficulty enlisting soldiers and raising money to fight the war.The Congress established the Continental Army but depended on the states to recruit soldiers.The Opposing Sides (cont.)
Section 1Some women, such as Molly Pitcher, fought with the Patriot forces.The Opposing Sides (cont.)The best officers in the Continental Army were veterans of previous wars.
ABCDSection 1One of the Patriots greatest advantages was which of the following? A.A larger population B.Mercenaries fighting on their sideC.A stronger navyD.George Washington as their military leader
Section 1Patriot Defeats and Victories After suffering defeat at the Battle of Long Island, the Americans rallied and won victories at Trenton and Princeton.
Section 1The British commander, General William Howe, hoped the sheer size of his army would convince the Patriots to give up.Before being hanged as a spy, Patriot Nathan Hale said, I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.As many as 5,000 African Americanssuch as Lemuel Hayes and Peter Salem joined the Patriots.Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.)
Section 1On Christmas night 1776, Washington and 2,400 troops crossed the Delaware River and surprised the enemy at Trenton the next day.Patriot Defeats and Victories (cont.)
ABCDSection 1Historians estimate that how many African Americans joined the Patriots to fight? A.500 B.1,000C.5,000D.10,000
Section 1A British Plan for Victory The British plan to separate New England from the Middle Colonies was foiled at the Battle of Saratoga.
Section 1The British wanted to gain control of the Hudson River, which would separate New England from the Middle Colonies.The British captured Philadelphia but were stopped in New York by American forces led by Benedict Arnold. In the Battle of Saratoga, American troops under the command of General Horatio Gates surrounded the British troops and their plan to separate the colonies failed.A British Plan for Victory (cont.)
ABCDSection 1At which battle was the British plan to separate the colonies foiled? A.The Battle of Saratoga B.The Battle of TrentonC.The Battle of PhiladelphiaD.The Battle of Burgoyne
Section 2-Essential QuestionHow did the United States gain allies and aid during the Revolutionary War?
Section 2-Key TermsContent VocabularydesertinflationAcademic VocabularyaidissueReading Guide
Section 2-Key TermsKey People and EventsBernardo de GlvezMarquis de LafayetteFriedrich von SteubenJuan de MirallesJudith Sargeant MurrayAbigail AdamsReading Guide (cont.)
Section 2Gaining Allies Even with aid from other nations and individuals, the Patriots had difficulty financing their war for independence.
Section 2Realizing that the Americans had a chance of defeating Britain, the French declared war on Britain and sent money, equipment, and troops to aid the American patriots.Spain also declared war on Britain in 1779 and the Spanish governor of Louisiana, Bernardo de Glvez, raised an army.Gaining Allies (cont.)
Section 2Many men deserted the Continental Army during a winter of terrible suffering at Valley Forge. However, the Continental Army did survive the winter.Among the leaders at Valley Forge was a French noble, the Marquis de Lafayette.Friedrich von Steuben, a former army officer from Prussia, also came to help General Washington.Gaining Allies (cont.)
Section 2Juan de Miralles arrived in Philadelphia in 1778 as a representative of Spain.To pay for the war, the Congress and the states printed hundreds of millions of dollars worth of paper money, which led to inflation.Gaining Allies (cont.)
ABCDSection 2What is the main reason that European nations helped the Americans fight for independence?A.They knew America would become a superpower one day. B.The American politicians promised them money in return. C.They admired their cause. D.They disliked the British.
Section 2Life on the Home Front The ideals of liberty and freedom that inspired the American Revolution carried through to the issues of womens interests and slavery.
Section 2The ideals of liberty and freedom that inspired the American Revolution also caused some women to question their place and treatment in American society.Judith Sargeant Murray argued that womens minds are as good as mens.Abigail Adams also stood up for womens interests.Life on the Home Front (cont.)
Section 2The Revolutionary War ideals also inspired some white Americans to question slavery; however, the issue of slavery would remain unsettled for many years.Loyalists who remained in the United States faced difficult times.Life on the Home Front (cont.)
ABCDSection 2Which of the following states did NOT attempt to abolish slavery around the time of the American Revolution? A.Vermont B.VirginiaC.New HampshireD.Pennsylvania
Section 3-Essential QuestionHow did fighting in the West and South affect the course of the Revolutionary War?
Section 3-Key TermsContent Vocabularyblockadeprivateerguerrilla warfareAcademic VocabularyimpactsustainReading Guide
Section 3-Key TermsKey People and EventsJoseph BrantGeorge Rogers ClarkJohn Paul JonesBattle of Moores CreekGeneral Charles CornwallisFrancis MarionNathanael GreeneReading Guide (cont.)
Section 3War in the WestThe British, along with their Native American allies, led attacks against settlers in the West.
Section 3Some Native Americans helped the Patriots, but moreincluding Mohawk chief Joseph Brantsided with the British, who seemed less of a threat than the Americans.George Rogers Clarks victory at Vincennes strengthened the American position in the West.War in the West (cont.)
ABSection 3With whom did most Native Americans side during the American Revolution? A.Britain B.America
Section 3Glory at Sea The American navy and American privateers had some successes against the powerful British navy.
Section 3Britains navy formed a blockade, preventing supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Continental Army.Because the American navy was too weak to operate effectively, the Second Continental Congress authorized approximately 2,000 ships to sail as privateers.A daring American naval officer, John Paul Jones, raided British ports and became a naval hero to the American Patriots.Glory at Sea (cont.)
ABCDSection 3Of the thirteen American warships built to fight the British, how many actually made it to sea? A.One B.TwoC.FiveD.Ten
Section 3Struggles in the South Great Britain hoped that a strong campaign in the South would help the war.
Section 3In 1776 the Americans crushed Loyalists at the Battle of Moores Creek, near Wilmington, North Carolina.Hoping to use their sea power and the support of the Loyalists to win decisive victories, General Charles Cornwallis commanded the British forces in the Southern states.Struggles in the South (cont.)
Section 3Francis Marion successfully used the hit-and-run technique of guerrilla warfare against the British in South Carolina.In October 1780, Nathanael Greenes army was forced to retreat from Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, but the British sustained great losses in the process of fighting.Struggles in the South (cont.)
ABCDSection 3Francis Marion, a successful guerrilla leader, was known by what nickname? A.Hiding Francis B.Merry MarionC.The Swamp FoxD.The Mountain Man
Section 4-Essential QuestionHow did the Battle of Yorktown lead to American independence?
Section 4-Key TermsContent VocabularyratifyambushAcademic VocabularystrategypursueReading Guide
Section 4-Key TermsKey People and EventsComte de RochambeauFranois de GrasseBattle of YorktownBenjamin FranklinJohn AdamsJohn JayTreaty of ParisReading Guide (cont.)
Section 4Victory at Yorktown Washingtons complicated battle plan led to the important American victory at Yorktown.
Section 4General Washington changed his battle plan when he learned that Admiral Franois de Grasse, the French naval commander, was heading toward Chesapeake Bay instead of New York.Washingtons secret strategy was to attack the British at Yorktown, Virginia, with the help of French soldiers commanded by Comte de Rochambeau.Victory at Yorktown (cont.)
Section 4The Patriots won the Battle of Yorktown which led to the British surrender.Victory at Yorktown (cont.)
ABCDSection 4Which song was played as the British marched between rows of French and American troops to hand over their weapons? A.The National Anthem B.The Battle Hymn of the RepublicC.Yankee DoodleD.The Noble Duke of York
Section 4Independence The Patriots spirit and resolve helped them win independence.
Section 4The Patriot victory at Yorktown convinced the British that the war was too costly to pursue.The Americans sent Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay to Paris to negotiate a treaty with the British.The American Congress ratified the preliminary treaty in April 1783, and the final Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783.Independence (cont.)
Section 4Washington urged Congress to fund the American soldiers pensions, preventing a revolt, and then resigned and retired to Mount Vernon, Virginia.There are several reasons why the Americans won the Revolutionary War:Independence (cont.)They fought on their own land while the British had to bring troops and supplies from thousands of miles away.
Section 4They knew the local terrain and where to lay an ambush.They had help from other nations, such as France and Spain.The Revolution was a peoples movement with the outcome depending on the determination and spirit of the Patriots.Independence (cont.)The American Revolution inspired the French Revolution and revolution in the French colony of Saint Domingue.
ABCDSection 4Which of the following is NOT a provision of the Treaty of Paris? A.The Loyalists would have a year to move to British territory. B.Britain would withdraw its troops from American territory. C.Americans could fish in the waters off the coast of Canada. D.British merchants could collect debts the Americans owed them.
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DTP Trans 4
Vocab1mercenarypaid soldier who serve in the army ofa foreign country
Vocab2recruitto enlist soldiers in the army
Vocab3transferto move from one place to another
Vocab4previousearlier, coming before
Vocab5desertto leave without permission
Vocab6inflationa continuous rise in the price of goods and services
Vocab8issuepoint or matter of discussion
Vocab9blockadecut off an area by means of troops or warships to stop supplies or people from coming in or going out; to close off a countrys ports
Vocab10privateerarmed private ship licensed to attack merchant ships
Vocab11guerrilla warfarea hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Vocab12impacteffect or influence
Vocab13sustainto suffer or experience
Vocab14ratifyto give official approval to
Vocab15ambusha surprise attack
Vocab16strategyplan of action
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